hrm management

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Q2.
A brief explanation of job analysis and two of its purposes. Introduction:
Definition:
A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. This is the systematic collecting and recording of information about the purpose of a role its major duties and tasks, the condition under which the role is performed, and the required contacts with others, plus the knowledge, skills, abilities required to effectively perform the role. Job analysis is a part of the organisational job design.

A job analysis is simply background work for the interview. In the given cases we do job analysis.
When information for position description is required.
To update and to keep the role position.
Job analysis is conducted on the actual role position not the person position. Job analysis may include this activities:
Reviewing the job responsibilities of current employees,

Doing Internet research and viewing sample job description online or offline highlighting similar jobs.

Analysing the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position,

Researching and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs,

Articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position

Purposes of job analysis:

One of the main purposes of conducting job analysis is to prepare job descriptions and job specifications which in turn helps hire the right quality of workforce into an organization. 

It is used for writing position description.
It is used in learning and development.
It is used for performance appraisal review of an employee,
It can be used in career development.

We have described job analysis and looked at implications for determining suitable candidates choosing methods of selection, and evaluating predictive versus concurrent validity.

(apa, 2014)
http://humanresources.about.com/od/jobdescriptions/g/job_analysis.htm (about.com, n.d.)

Job analysis methods:

Common methods of job analysis include the following:
Observation:
A trained observer observes a worker, recording what the worker does, how the work is done, and how long it takes. There are two types of observation: (1)Continuous observation involves observing a job over a given period of time. (2)Sampling involves observing several incumbents over random, relatively short periods of time. Observation is a simple and frequently used method of job analysis. Interview:

A trained job analyst interviews a job incumbent, usually utilizing a standardized format. Sometimes more than one worker is interviewed, and the results are aggregated. Another variation is the group interview, where several incumbents are interviewed at the same time. Critical Incident:

Behaviorally based critical incidents are used to describe work, and a job analyst determines the degree of each behavior that is present or absent in the job. Diary:
The job incumbent records activities and tasks in a log as they are performed. Checklist:
A worker or supervisor check items on a standardized task inventory that apply to the job. Checklists may be custom-made or purchased from an outside vendor. Questionnaire:
There are two types of questionnaires: The structured questionnaire uses a standardized list of work activities, called a task inventory, that job incumbents or supervisors may identify as related to the job. In addition, the respondent may also identify additional information such as how much time is spent on the task, the amount of supervision required, and/or the expertise required. The open-ended questionnaire asks the job incumbent to describe the work in his or her own words. Technical Conference:

Several experts (often called "subject matter experts") on the job collaborate to provide information about the work...
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