Hrm in 21st Century (Theories & Practices)

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CHAPTER ONE: HRM in 21st CENTURY (THEORIES & PRACTICES)

INTRODUCTION
Through this chapter the following definitions & elements will be discussed, described & illustrated that took place during the 19th, 20st and 21th centuries.

HRM in 19th & 20th Century
Modern concept of human resources
Though human resources have been part of business and organizations since the first days of agriculture, the modern concept of human resources began in reaction to the efficiency focus in the early 1900s One serious flaw of 20th century management is the definition of performance.

HRM on 21st Century Theories & Practices

History of Human Resource;
The Human Resources Management (HRM): includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs, hiring employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring the personnel and management practices conform to various regulations; Role of Human Resources;

Human Resource Business Environment: internal and external factors that can have an effect on the recruitment of employees; Globalization, Outsourcing and Human Resource Management;
The Challenge of Human Resources Management: Challenges of new technology, managing change, developing human capital, globalization for managers…; Human Resource Development : the frameworks for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities; Strategic Human Resource Management: human resource programs that have long term objectives; The Importance of an HR Policies & Practices Strategy: role in a company, acceptable behavior within the company, consequences for violations….; Important Laws and Human Resource Management: regarding hiring policy, contract agreement….; Employment Development Department

HRM in 19th & 20th Century

Human resources
The traditional but extremely narrow context of hiring, firing, and job description is considered a 20th century anachronism. Most corporate organizations that compete in the modern global economy have adopted a view of human capital that mirrors the modern consensus as above. Some of these, in turn, deprecate the term "human resources" as useless. As the term refers to predictable exploitations of human capital in one context or another, it can still be said to apply to manual labor, mass agriculture, low skill "McJobs" in service industries, military and other work that has clear job descriptions, and which generally do not encourage creative or social contributions. In general the abstractions of macro-economics treat it this way - as it characterizes no mechanisms to represent choice or ingenuity. So one interpretation is that "firm-specific human capital" as defined in macro-economics is the modern and correct definition of "human resources" - and that this is inadequate to represent the contributions of "human resources" in any modern theory of political economy.

Modern concept of human resources
Though human resources have been part of business and organizations since the first days of agriculture, the modern concept of human resources began in reaction to the efficiency focus of Taylorism in the early 1900s. By 1920, psychologists and employment experts in the United States started the human relations movement, which viewed workers in terms of their psychology and fit with companies, rather than as interchangeable parts. This movement grew throughout the middle of the 20th century, placing emphasis on how leadership, cohesion, and loyalty played important roles in organizational success. Although this view was increasingly challenged by more quantitatively rigorous and less "soft" management techniques in the 1960s and beyond, human resources had gained a permanent role within an organization.

Definition of performance
20th century management mixes results with performance and manages both as performance One...
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