The study of HRM evolves from the personnel management since from the industrial revolution age. During that time two types of perspectives are widely prevalent one is Pluralist and the other is Unitarist. There lies a significant difference between the two. As per Pluralist a multinational organization basically consists of large no. of subgroups where loyalty lies in each subgroup, whereas as per Unitarist it is a single entity which flourishes in harmony. In pluralist, the two important subgroups are trade union and management, whereas as per Unitarist it is unique. ( Analoui, 1999) Over the year the same thoughts prevail, but with the emergence of HRM and modern business strategies, many changes occurred in the field of HRM and can be explained with the help of various models.
Multinational organizational structure, Multinational organizational strategy and HRM are interrelated. A large no. of models has been derived to discuss this and one such model is the beer Model .This model acts as a map or guide to develop strategy pertaining to relationships among all the employees. It basically concentrates on the soft aspects of HRM. It basically gives importance to the employee commitment rather than control. It is also based on the premise that employees needed to be congruent, cost effective and competent. This model is very successful in explaining various strategies adopted by the multinational organization as reward system leads to better job performance. However it is criticized on the resource based perspective that it disrupts the business focus of the multinational organization and also distorts the cost minimization and the profit maximization.( Beer (1984))
Significant of HRM and Multinational organizational behavior as per various Models
HRM and organizational behavior plays an important role in devising strategy to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the multinational organization. Various models are there which are helping the multinational organization to achieve their goals. The various problem faced by a multinational organization during following phases are given below. Scholars of HR suggested various models which is widely used by multinational companies as given in the following sections:-
➢ Problem to select right candidates during recruitment can be better explained by self efficacy model.
➢ LMX Model to define relationship between Manager and subordinates
➢ Job Characteristics Model to solve the problem of the characteristic of ideal job
➢ Goal Setting Model to prepare performance appraisal.
Self Efficacy Model
The term self-efficacy is used to describe an individual’s perception of how competent they find themselves and their abilities to achieve complex tasks. People with strong self-efficacy are more likely to accept more responsibility and accept more challenging tasks. They also believe that no obstacles can get in the way from stopping them achieve their goals. Individuals with low self-efficacy are more apt to looking as difficult tasks as intimidating and do not believe they that are capable of achieving personal success.
Self-efficacy is something that is important in any multinational organization. However, it is more important at any multinational organization to hire individuals who have a High level of self-efficacy so that employee perceives themselves capable of achieving many complex tasks. This could prove to be an issue within the multinational organization because individuals could become bored or feel not challenged by the tasks designated in their position, which could lead to frustration for the employees and employer. Hence, Challenging tasks should be given to such individuals. An individual with moderate level of self-efficacy provides opportunity for the multinational organization to designate tasks to that are challenging, but also still attainable. It is good to hire large no. of...