HRD Systems and Sub-Systems
The Scope HRD is to develop i,e. to increase effectiveness and potential of the individual, employees, roles, teams, inter-terms, and the organizations. Relevant HRD processes, help in enhancing effectiveness of these human units. However, it is necessary to have a formal and systematic way of achieving this. Such formal way of developing human resources is the HRD system. HRD system can be broken down into sub-systems. An integrated combination of all these sub-systems is the HRD system. We describe below the main HRD sub-systems.
Over the years several HRD practices have emerged in India. There is no unified way to classify HRD activities and efforts. A classification system is suggested here, based on both the new emerging trends in the HRD work in India, and conceptual understanding of the main foci of HRD activities. It should be concerned with developing systems of making individuals (and the roles), and the organization) and the teams more effective. The systems that are primarily concerned with individual employees (and their roles) relate to their appraisal, their advancement, and their advancement, and their training; and the systems concerned with the development of the organization (and its teams) relate to its design, management of culture, and renewal of the organization. We suggest the following six HRD systems:
1) Performance Management System : Performance Appraisal (PA) system are widely used in the Indian organization. More recently these have been renamed as Performance Management (PM) Systems. The main difference between them is their respective emphasis and spirit, PA emphasizing more the appraisal aspect, while PM’s stress being on performance improvement. Performance Management required the competency mapping of the various important jobs, identifying competency required for effective performance on the jobs. In both systems performance coaching or counseling has an important place. Indian organization have paid more attention or performance appraisal. However, in many cases in the absence of performance coaching performance appraisal or management system becomes a ritual. Larsen and Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), and Crompton-Greaves were amongst the fist companies to adopt a systematic performance coaching.
2) Career System : Career systems are concerned with the advancement of the individual employees in their careers in the organization. The first step is taken by introducing career development plans so that employees joining at an any point are helped t go through various experiences which may help them to move up in the organization and may give them opportunities to prove themselves capable of taking up higher responsibilities. For example, ITC prepares a career development plan for each employee within the framework of the organization’s business plans. The first input is a “base plan” under which each unit prepares a checklist of minimum common inputs that should be made available to each executive in the first ten years (approximately) of his growth, from induction through secondments, and specialized programmes to general development programmes and interpersonal effectiveness labs. Career planning is concerned
with charting career paths for the individual employees who have spent enough time in the organization, and have proved their competence. Succession planning is a part of this type of career planning. One of the most successful succession planning systems is in Hindustan Lever, where succession plans are prepared for all key roles several years in advance.
The third element, which has been used only in a few organizations in India, is mentoring that ensures individual attention to young potential employees (protégées) for their possible fast growth in the organization.
3) Reinforcement System : A very important motivation factor for people joining and continuing is an organization is the kind of work they get, and whether they are...
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