Hr Issues in Education

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Final Report

Human Resource Issues in Education:
A Literature Review

Prepared for the

New Zealand Ministry of Education

Michael Fullan and Blair Mascall
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto

April, 2000

Final Report

Human Resource Issues in Education: A Literature Review



Page 1

Teacher Recruitment and Preservice Training

Page 10

Hiring and Induction

Page 23

Professional Development

Page 32

Standards and Assessments for Teachers and Principals

Page 41

The Learning Profession

Page 57


Page 65


Human resource issues have come to be seen as central to every policy initiative in education around the world. While the “hot” issues in education invariably focus on student achievement, funding for

education, and issues of access and quality, the factors which concern the recruitment, preparation, hiring, assessment and professional

development of the workforce are key to understanding the issues themselves. Yet it is only in the last decade that education systems have been considering the totality of the issues. For some time, there has been research and discussion about individual components — such as professional development — but it is during the 1990s that research and policy analysts have been examining how the components fit together: examining, in fact, a ‘human resource strategy’ for the teaching profession. Our review of the recent literature has been undertaken in that context. While we examine the various component parts of a human resource strategy, it is the approach to the whole system that provides the richest research, and leads to the most effective practice. In this introduction, we describe our framework, our methodology, and provide a general commentary on the direction of the findings in this review. The remaining sections of this report provide details on the literature we have reviewed under the headings of the various component parts.

Human Resource Issues in Education: A Literature Review, Final Report New Zealand Ministry of Education

2. Framework for the Review The model of human resource development and deployment which we have used to organize the literature review is contained in Figure 1. We believe that it has both theoretical and empirical justification, although attributing causal pathways in economic resource terms is very difficult.

Figure 1: The Model of Human Resource Issued in the Learning Profession

Hiring and Induction

Hiring The and Professional Learning Development Profession Orientati Hiring The and ProfessionalDevelopm Learning Standards Orientati ent and Professio The Assessment ProfessionalDevelopm Learning n ent Professio n

Preservice Training

Structures and Mechanisms

Policies and Incentives

The centrepiece of the model is ‘The Learning Profession’. This is not just an abstract term, but a designation that is based on the observation that in the knowledge society — in a society that constantly generates new ideas and problems to be solved requiring intellectual, financial, and social resources — we need a teaching and principal force capable of learning on a continuous basis. There is considerable evidence that individuals and organizations that continually access and process knowledge in terms of designated goals and indicators of performance, are successful (Fullan, 1999, Keating and Hertzman, 1999).

Human Resource Issues in Education: A Literature Review, Final Report New Zealand Ministry of Education

3. The human resource issues which have an impact on this workforce must be viewed generationally in context. We need to identify the particular demographic, economic, social and political circumstances facing societies in the year 2000 and beyond. Without going into a detailed analysis, we can say that there is and will continue to be for the next decade, an enormous turnover of the...
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