HRM Roles at Different Level
The roles, functions and strategies of HRM are many and varied, and depend heavily on the nature of organizations, the vision and skills of practitioners, and changes in the external environments of organizations. These aspects will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent chapters, but such features as organizational size, history and ownership, government legislation and political factors have a significant impact on the ways in which practitioners carry out their roles. The vision and skills of practitioners allow these influences to be seen as pressures and constrictions or opportunities and challenges. The principal responsibility of HRM is to ensure that organizations have the right numbers, types and skill mixes of employees at an appropriate time and cost to meet present and future requirements. Thus, practitioners need to be aware of where organizations are going in the future, the nature of the external and internal labor markets, and the most effective strategies for matching labor demand and supply. Practitioners need to operate at three distinct levels: strategic, operational, and functional. At the strategic level, practitioners are involved in corporate and human resource planning. At the operational level, they develop action plans to meet present labor needs. At the functional level, practitioners carry out the many activities that ensure employees are in the right place at the right time and for the right cost.
Functions of HRM
The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (for-profit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can’t yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have and are aware of personnel policies which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. HRM is concerned to resolve the following key issues: i) What quantity and quality of employees will be required now and in the foreseeable future to satisfy or exceed corporate objectives? ii) Which strategies will be most effective in attracting, choosing and efficiently incorporating employees into the organization? iii) How can well-chosen employees be kept productive, satisfied and motivated to contribute to organizational growth and development? iv) What methods are appropriate to maintain effective relationships between employees, jobs, work environments and management? v) Which strategies are required to ensure that all HR activities are linked and accountable? vi) What systems are suitable for administering and evaluating the overall HR function? The functional areas that constitute an HR program and contribute to the resolution of these issues include: human resource policy, human resource planning, human resource information systems, work and job analysis, design and evaluation, recruitment and selection, diversity management, career management, employee and management training and development, counseling, discipline and separation, performance and quality management, remuneration and benefits, industrial relations management, financial management of employee schemes and overall accountability and evaluation, occupational health and safety etc.
HRP: Concept and Meaning
Planning is an essential process of management. Human resource planning (HRP)( provides the...