Human Resource Management
Q.1. Discuss the evolution of Human resource management by drawing reference from the Hawthorne Studies. A.1. Evolution of Human Resource management drawing by Hawthorne Studies: Following the scientific management tradition, these engineers were applying research methods to answer job related problems. Two groups were studied to determine the effects of different levels of illumination on worker performance. One group received increased illumination, while the other did not. A preliminary finding was that, when illumination was increased, the level of performance also increased. Productivity increase as illumination was decreased almost to moonlight levels. One interpretation based on these result was that the workers involved in the experiment enjoyed being the centre of attention: they reacted positively because management cared about them. Such a phenomenon taking place in any research setting is now called the Hawthorne Effect.
As a result of these preliminary investigations, a team of researchers headed by Elton Mayo and F. J. Roethilisberger from Harvard conducted a lengthy series of experiments extending over a six year period. The conclusions they reached served as the bedrock of later developments in the human relations approach to management. Among their key findings were the following:
Economic incentives are less potent than generally believed in influencing workers to achieve high levels of output. Leadership practices and work group pressures profoundly influence employee satisfaction and performance. Any factor influencing employee behaviour is embedded in a social system. For instance, to understand the impact of pay on performance, you also have to understand the climet that exists in the work group and the leadership style of the superior.
Q.2. Trace the significant aspects of Human Resource Movement in India from the period of Kautilya till the implementation of the...