A Brief History
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the effective management of people at work. It examines what can or should be done to make working people more productive. HRM can be traced back to England where masons, carpenters, leather workers and other craftspeople organized themselves into guilds. They used their unity to improve work conditions. The human resource field further developed with the arrival of the Industrial revolution in the latter part of the 18th century, which laid the basis for a new and complex industrial society. Industrial Revolution began with the substitution of steam power and machinery for time-consuming hand labour. Working conditions, social patterns and the division of labour were significantly altered. A new kind of relationship which was employee-boss relationship was formed. Scientific management and welfare work represent two concurrent approaches that began in the 19th century and along with industrial psychology, merged during the era of the world wars. Scientific management represented an effort to deal with inefficiencies in labour and management primarily through work methods, time and motion study and specialization. Industrial psychology represented the application of psychological principles toward increasing the ability of workers to perform efficiently and effectively. Frederick W. Taylor in his research on worker efficiency attempted to discover the “one best way” and the one fastest way to do a job. He summarized scientific management as: a. science, not rules of thumb.
b. Harmony, not discord.
c. Cooperation, not individualism.
d. Maximum output, not restricted output.
Whereas scientific management focused on the job and efficiencies, industrial psychology, focused on the worker and individual differences. The maximum well-being of the worker was the focus of industrial psychology.
The drastic changes in technology, the growth of organizations, the rise of unions, and...