Hpv in America

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Human Papillomavirus in United States
Vanessa Moreno
Platt College

Abstract
Human papillomavirus is a highly contagious virus which infects almost everyone who is or has been sexually active. It is spread by anal, vaginal and oral sex but sexual intercourse is not required for infection to occur. Anybody and everybody are capable of catching the infection and in the worst case scenario the virus is able to cause cervical cancer in females and a painful case of genital wart in males. It creates cervical cancer by infecting the thin layer of tissue in the cervix by creating abnormalities and damages which then begins to grow differently. With thanks to the vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix, HPV is preventable by 99% when taken appropriately. It is highly recommended for boy and girls to receive the vaccine at a young age and if distributed worldwide HPV death can be reduced immensely.

Human Papillomavirus in Woman
(Woman’s Health Magazine, 2012) Chances are that you have already been exposed to HPV and have not noticed. Most adults who are sexually active are likely to be exposed with in the first year. The more sex partners exist, the risk becomes greater. Woman’s Health Magazine (2012), claims as many as 75 percent of the reproductive age has been exposed to one or more genital HPV viruses, and annually 5.5 million new cases occur. An immense majority of HPV cases are no harm to our health and 95 percent of the different types of viruses have no signs of any symptoms beside a abnormal result on a pap smear analyses, on the other hand HPV is the primary causes of cervical cancer (Women Health Magazine 2012). Besides cervical cancer HPV can also cause cancer in the penis, vulva, head, neck, oropharynx (back of the throat) and the ulna but are extremely rare to diagnose. In addition, HPV is believed to be responsible for 90% of anal cancers, 40% of vulvar, vaginal, or penile cancers, and 12% of oral and pharyngeal cancers(CDC 2011). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a highly dominant sexually transmitted disease. The epidemic disease is most common in adolescents and young adults. It is estimated three fourths of sexually active adults has been infected once or more in their lifetime (Epidemiology and Natural History of HPV, 2006). Center of Disease Control and Prevention (2013) indicates 90 percent of the time the immune system destroys the virus before it becomes a cancer or genital warts but in other cases it virus does not disappear and may stay in the body forever. In healthy individuals, 75% of incident infections are cleared within 30 days of exposure. HPV sixteen and eighteen are the most common high risk HPV types found in cervical cancer and are responsible for approximately 70 percent of these cancers. HPV is the cause of most cases of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is a condition in which the cells in the lining of the cervix (the narrow, outer end of the uterus) change and grow very fast, producing a mass of cells called a tumor (The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2012). This condition usually develops over time and can affect women of any age but is most common in women in their mid-40s. However, just because a woman has HPV does not necessarily mean she will get cervical cancer. The two most common types of cervical cancer worldwide are squamous cell carcinoma which is then followed by adenocarcinoma, which both are caused by HPV. The American Cancer Society (2011) estimated 11,150 new cases of aggressive cervical cancer in the United States in 2007 and about 3,670 cervical cancer deaths that same year. These high risk HPV types are known to be necessary in the formation of cervical cancer and lead to high grade and low grade cervical lesions. Low risk HPV type such as HPV six and eleven cause skin warts on and around the genital area and anus, low grade cervical lesions, and respiratory papillomatosis but do not cause HPV related cancers. Most cases and deaths from cervical cancer can be prevented...
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