Futsal is a form of association football, played indoors with five players on each side. This sport shares similar physical qualities to soccer. Futsal is a high demanding sport, as it is quick paced. As a small sided game, players are constantly placed in situations where they must receive or play whilst under pressure or in a confined space. This game places considerable demand on technique, movement, tactical awareness and fitness on the player. Futsal is a great skill developer, demanding quick reflexes, fast thinking and pinpoint passing. The speed of play forces the player to make quick technical and tactical decisions. As every beginner learns a new skill they must go through the process of skill acquisition “The stages of skill acquisition go from a novice recognizing relevant facts and rules to an expert performing without deliberation.”
Futsal consists of many skill acquisitions; the skill that has been chosen is rolling the ball. This skill helps you to manoeuvre around the defender. Rolling the ball can be classified as a locomotor, discrete, fine motor & open skill. Rolling the ball is a locomoter skill as you are rolling the ball from one point to another; it is also a discrete skill as it is a skill with a distinct beginning and end. Rolling the ball is classified as a fine motor skill as it involves movement of small muscle groups such as calf muscles; another skill that is used when rolling the ball is open skills, as it is performed in an unpredictable environment.
There are three stages of skill learning:
* The cognitive stage [understanding]
* The associative stage [practising]
* The autonomous stage [automatic performance]
The cognitive stage is the stage you are learning what is needed to perform the skill [rolling the ball]. As the cognitive stage is exploratory, the beginner will invariably make a large number of errors when trying to perform the skill. The best way to learn the skill is to be shown a demonstration and by trying to follow the example. There are a number of ways to help a beginner learn a new skill by; giving clear instructions, providing accurate demonstrations, allowing the learner to experience the correct movement and providing specific feedback to help the learner recognise and correct errors.
The associative stage is the stage where once learners have understood what is required they must practise to become familiar with the required sequencing of the subroutines and the timing. Practise is the associative phase of learning. The amount of practise needed will depend on the complexity of the activity, the players ability, past experience and motivation. Demonstrations and feedback are very useful at this stage, as they are very useful for correcting errors. As the player refines their skills, they start to make fewer mistakes and their ability to recognise errors and make necessary adjustments improves. This stage usually takes a long time. Some performers remain in this stage for a long period of time depending on their level of physical ability.
The autonomous stage is the stage of learning the skill where it comes automatic. During this stage of skill learning, it becomes a lot easier to perform and the player’s level of anxiety is reduced. Practice has enabled the player to reach a stage where they can organise required movements into the correct sequence. This stage of skill learning displays the following attributes; The sequencing and timing of subroutines becomes automatic, less cognitive control is needed and the speed and efficiency of action are increased. Having reached this stage, the performer can concentrate on more detailed aspects of the skill. A performer can then go further by learning when and when not to use a particular skill in a game setting. Athletes find it necessary to go back to the cognitive stage to ensure that they are performing a skill correctly.
The current stage of skill...