•British cotton textile industry grew into the worlds most productive; its railway network became the nation’s principal means of inland transportation and communication; and a new fleet of steam-powered ships enabled Britain to project its new productivity and power around the globe. •A Revolution in Agriculture
oJethro Tull invented the seed drill that replaced to old method of scattering seeds by hand on the surface of the soil. oEnclosure acts: laws passed in England in the late 1700s to 1800s that converted public lands held in common into parcels of land to be sold to private owners. •A Revolution in Textile Manufacture
oMost spinning was accomplished using a spinning wheel
oNew machinery was invented, but the main source of power continued to be human labor. o1779- Samuel Crompton developed a ‘spinning mule’, a hybrid that joined the principles of the spinning jenny and the water frame to produce a better quality and higher quantity of cotton thread. oIn Britain, coal miners were seeking more efficient ways of pumping water out of mine shafts, enabling deeper digging. oNew productivity of the machines transformed Britain’s economy. oIndia’s industrial position was reverse as the country became a supplier of raw cotton to Britain and an importer of machine-manufactured cotton textiles from Britain. •Capital Goods: Iron, Steam Engines, Railways, and Steamships o1775- Iron industry relocated to the coal and iron fields of the English Midlands. oWith the new steam engine and the increased availability and quality of iron, the railroad industry was born. oThe new locomotives quickly superseded the canal systems of Britain and the United States, which had been built mostly since the 1750s as the favored means of transporting raw materials and bulk goods between industrial cities. oThe first transatlantic steamship lines began operation in 1838. THE SECOND STAGE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION, 1860-1914
•Steel and Chemical Industries
Bessemer steel converter
Siemens-Martin open-hearth method
oThese new developments allowed iron ore to be converted to steel cheaply and abundantly. •Electricity
o1831- Michael Faraday first demonstrated the principle of electromagnetic induction by moving a metal conductor through a magnetic field to generate electricity. oThomas Alva Edison acquired over a thousand patents for his innovations. •Factory Production
oCartels- An association of independent producers or businessmen whose aim is to control the supply of a particular commodity or group of commodities in order to regulate or push up prices. oIndustrial concentration displaced the artisan in favor of mass—production and mass-concentration. •Warfare and Industrialization
o1862- Richard Gatling invented the machine gun.
•The Effects of the Second Industrial Revolution Worldwide oProfits form all these businesses, civilian and military, spilled over into finance capital, the purposeful reinvestment of capital into new business to reap new profits. oIndustrializations and urbanization encouraged the immigration that helped increase the population of North America from 39 million in 1850 to 106 million in 1900. SOCIAL CHANGES: THE CONDITIONS OF WORKING PEOPLE
•Demographic Causes and Effects of the Industrial Revolution oThe population of Europe almost doubled between 1750 and 1850, from 140 million to 265 million, and then jumped another 50 percent to 400 million by 1900. •Winners and Losers in the Industrial Revolution
oNew entrepreneurs, men creating successful new industrial enterprises, often profited handsomely in this era oHandicraft workers were displaced by the new mechanization. oGovernment called for, and got, remedial legislation.
oSir Edwin Chadwick noted that the British government had already begun legislating the conditions of child labor and of tenement construction. •Gender Relationships and the...