How to Write an Ethics Case

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Ethics Review
Short Answer Questions

Table of Contents
Hosmer, Chapter 13
Sexty, Chapter 13
Sexty, Chapter 26
Sexty, Chapter 39
Sexty, Chapter 412

Hosmer, Chapter 1

Identify and explain the individual determinants of moral standards * Personal goals
* Expectations of outcomes
* Things we want out of life and things we expect others want out of life too * Material possessions, lifestyle preferences, personal goods, social aims * Personal norms
* Expectations of behaviour
* Ways we expect to act and expect others to act
* Norms are expectations, morals are gauges
* Personal beliefs
* Expectations of thought
* Beliefs support norms, norms lead toward goals
* Personal values
* Priorities between goals, norms and beliefs
* Judge relative importance between what we want, how we want to act, and why we believe as we do * Individual determinants work in combination with religious/cultural traditions and economic/social situations * Religious beliefs and cultural norms

* Relative income and financial security
* Membership in different organizations whose members can influence goals, norms, beliefs and values -> ultimately moral standards How are personal moral standards formed? Answer with reference to the individual determinants of moral standards. * Beliefs support norms, norms lead toward goals, values rank these determinants * Beliefs, norms, goals and values are all influenced by external factors * Religious/cultural traditions

* Economic/social situations
Sexty, Chapter 1
Define and explain the significance of five factors influencing the integrity of Canadian business. * There’s actually 7
* Diversity of business interests
* Corporations differ in sizes, appropriateness is relative * Industries differ in competitiveness
* When wrongdoing is identified in particular corp or industry, do not generalize to all business * Foreign ownership and influence
* Nationalism restricted foreign business but have been reduced recently * Encourage foreign businesses to be “good corporate citizens” * Resource-based economy
* Canadian economy is resource-based
* Agriculture, energy production, mining, forestry, fishing, etc. * Small manufacturing sector relative to Germany, UK, US * Canada characterized by hundreds of single industry towns * Importance of trade

* Canada is a major trading economy
* Operates in a global economy
* New ethical challenges such as outsourcing
* Influence of Small Business
* 97% are small or medium businesses in Canada
* “Bigness” of the business system
* High degree of industrial concentration in economy
* Dominated by a few large firms
* Canadians concerned about power and influence of large corporations * Apply pressure on them to be more accountable to society * Government presence
* Extent of government controls or influences of business varies over time * Large role for 40 years after WWII, decline since then What are the doctrines of incorporation and how are they relevant to the Canadian business system? * Concession doctrine

* Incorporation was conferred by public act and could not be generated merely by private agreements among several persons to associate together for business purposes * Second doctrine: freedom of association

* Association of individuals coming together for some purpose fundamental to forming a corporation * Corporation becomes a “state within a state”
* Most highly developed and useful means of voluntary cooperation * Easy way for people to join and leave
* Right, not a privilege (like concession doctrine)
* Minimum special conditions and limitations imposed by gov * Modern corporations follow the second...
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