How to Write an Abstract

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How to write an abstract
An abstract is a short summary of your completed research. If done well, it makes the reader want to learn more about your research. I .These are the basic components of an abstract in any discipline: 1) Motivation/problem statement: Why do we care about the problem? What practical, scientific, theoretical or artistic gap is your research filling? ( Some state the background information about the investigation briefly before the motivation) 2) Methods/procedure/approach (and scope of the investigation): What did you actually do to get your results? 3) Results/findings/product: As a result of completing the above procedure, what did you learn/invent/create? 4) Conclusion/implications: What are the larger implications of your findings, especially for the problem/gap identified in step 1? However, it's important to note that the weight(长度) accorded to(根据) the different components can vary by discipline. For models, try to find abstracts of research that is similar to your research. II Grammar in Abstract

1. Background
__Notice the tense shift
__ Use the active voice in stating the principal objective and scope of the investigation. 2. Method
__Use the past tense in describing the methods employed.
__Be aware of the consistency in voice
__ Follow the chronological order if necessary.
3. Results
__present the results only
__Present them in the past tense
__Give statistical significance
4. Conclusions
__ Make statements of opinion.
__ Use the present tense in stating the principal conclusions. __ Avoid the tendency to be tentative.

Types Of Abstracts
There are two types of abstracts: informational and descriptive. Informational Abstracts
--communicate contents of reports
--include purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations --highlight essential points
--are short—from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the report (10% or less of the report) --allow readers to decide whether...
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