HOW TO USE THE THEORY OF ATTRIBUTES IN PROBABILITY

My intention is not to prove anything right or wrong,but as a student it is just a piece of my thinking compiled with little research. This is an article establish the relationship between the use of theory of attributes and probability.

There are two types of characteristics, one is quantitative like height, weight,price,etc. which can be measured cardinally,that is,numerically.The other type of characteristics is qualitative characteristics like honest,hardworking,etc.which cannot be measured cardinally. Theory of attributes tries to explain the inter-relation between the attributes,its consistency,whether the given data is true of false,etc. TO KNOW MORE..........

Probability is the chances or possibilities of occurence of event. Probability theory helps us to find the probabilities of various events.

To know more:
http://www.probabilitytheory.info/

INTER-RELATION:

You can use the theory of attributes in probability.
In the case of two objects,use the nine square table in which, A should be probability of occurence of first event and so opposite is alpha. B should be probability of occurence of second event.
AB is probability of occurence of both events.
and so on...

For occurence of three events you can use the contingency table for three attriibutes.

...chapter, you will be able to ONEDefine probability. TWO Describe the classical, empirical, and subjective approaches to probability. THREEUnderstand the terms experiment, event, outcome, permutation, and combination. FOURDefine the terms conditional probability and joint probability. FIVE Calculate probabilities applying the rules of addition and multiplication. SIXUse a tree diagram to organize and computeprobabilities. SEVEN Calculate a probability using Bayes theorem. What is probability There is really no answer to this question. Some people think of it as limiting frequency. That is, to say that the probability of getting heads when a coin is tossed means that, if the coin is tossed many times, it is likely to come down heads about half the time. But if you toss a coin 1000 times, you are not likely to get exactly 500 heads. You wouldnt be surprised to get only 495. But what about 450, or 100 Some people would say that you can work out probability by physical arguments, like the one we used for a fair coin. But this argument doesnt work in all cases, and it doesnt explain what probability means. Some people say it is subjective. You say that the probability of heads in a coin toss is 12 because you have no reason for thinking either heads or tails more likely you might change your view if you knew...

...I. ProbabilityTheory
* A branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena. The outcome of a random event cannot be determined before it occurs, but it may be any one of several possible outcomes. The actual outcome is considered to be determined by chance.
* The word probability has several meanings in ordinary conversation. Two of these are particularly important for the development and applications of the mathematical theory of probability. One is the interpretation of probabilities as relative frequencies, for which simple games involving coins, cards, dice, and roulette wheels provide examples.
* It is the likeliness of an event happening based on all the possible outcomes. The ratio for the probability of an event 'P' occurring is P (event) = number of favorable outcomes divided by number of possible outcomes.
Example:
A coin is tossed on a standard 8×8 chessboard.
What is the theoretical probability that the coin lands on a black square?
Choices:
A. 0.5
B. 0.25
C. 0.42
D. 0.6
Correct answer: A
Solution:
Step 1: Theoretical probability = number of favorable outcomes / number of possible outcomes.
Step 2: The probability of the coin lands on the black square is 32.
Step 3: Total number of outcomes = 64.
Step 4: P (event) =
Step 5: == 0.5
Step 6: The theoretical...

...random variable is
A) generated by a random number table.
B) the variable for which an algebraic equation is solved.
C) a numerical measure of a probability experiment.. Ans = C
D) a qualitative attribute of a population.
4) Given the table of probabilities for the random variable x, does this form a probability distribution? Answer yes or no.
x 5 10 15 25
P(x) 0.1 –0.1 0.3 0.8 Ans = No
5) True or False: The expected value of a discrete random variable may be negative Ans = True
6) The table of probabilities of the random variable x is given as:
x 0 1 2 5
P(x) 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1
Find the mean, µ and standard deviation, σ of x. Round answers to one decimal place. Ans = µ = 1.1, σ = 1.5
7) If p is the probability of success of a binomial experiment then the probability of failure is
A) 1 B) –p C) 1–p D) p + 0.5 Ans = C
8) A binomial experiment has 6 trials with the probability of success on any trial = p = 0.5. Find the probability of exactly 2 successes in the 6 trials. (Use the binomial probability distribution function.) Ans = 0.2344
9) Assume that male and female births are equally likely and the birth of any child does not affect the probability of the gender of any other...

...Notation for the Binomial Distribution
P(S) The symbol for the probability of success
P(F) The symbol for the probability of failure
p The numerical probability of a success
q The numerical probability of a failure
P(S) = p and P(F) = 1 - p = q
n The number of trials
X The number of successes
The probability of a success in a binomial experiment can be computed with the following formula.
Binomial Probability Formula
In a binomial experiment, the probability of exactly X successes in n trials is
An explanation of why the formula works will be given in the following example.
Example 1:
A coin is tossed three times. Find the probability of getting exactly two heads.
Solution:
This problem can be solved by looking that the sample space. There are three ways to get two heads.
HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, TTH, THT, HTT, TTT
The answer is or 0.375.
The probability of a success in a binomial experiment can be computed with the following formula.
Binomial Probability Formula
In a binomial experiment, the probability of exactly X successes in n trials is
An explanation of why the formula works will be given in the following example.
Example 1:
A coin is tossed three...

...Hey guys, this is the probability Assignment. Last date for submission is 10 aug...
Q1. What is the probability of picking a card that was either red or black?
Q2. A problem in statistics is given to 5 students A, B, C, D, E. Their chances of solving it are ½,1/3,1/4,1/5,1/6. What is the probability that the problem will be solved?
Q3. A person is known to hit the target in 3 out of 4 shots whereas another person is known to hit the target in 2 out of 3 shots. Find the probability that the target being hit at all when they both try?
Q4. An investment consultant predicts that the odds against price of a certain stock will go up during the next week are 2:1 and the odds in the favor of the price remaining the same are 1:3.What is the probability that the price of the stock will go down during eth next week?
Q5. A bag contains 10 White and 6 Black balls. 4 balls are successfully drawn out and not replaced. What is the probability that they are alternately of different colors?
Q6.In a multiple-choice question there are 4 alternative answers, of which one or more are correct. A candidate will get marks in the question only if he ticks all the correct answers. The candidate decides to tick answers at random. If he is allowed up to 3 chances to answer the question, find the probability that he will get marks in the question?
Q7. A and B are two independent...

...A theory is a vital basis of every nursing endeavor. It can possibly explain the sense of every nursing action in the field. Without such, the practice of the profession will lack sense and deeper meaning. All throughout the history of nursing, it became a foundation that governs nurses in performing their duties. Like the theory of Nightingale which guided nurses during the Crimean War when Florence, along with other trained nurses took care of the soldiers who were injured by attending to their needs of cleanliness as to prevent infection which was rampant during that period. This theory had been evident in the day-to-day nursing practice. The most obvious way that nurses perform to apply the said theory is handwashing. It was proven through studies that frequent handwashing greatly helps in the prevention of infection which strengthens the credibility of Nightingale's theory. In view of this, I can say that nursing theories are not just mere sources of principles behind phenomena in nursing practice but above all, they are fundamental rudiments of uplifting the motivation of nurses to do their functions. If nurses had a better view of these theories, it would not be hard for them to do a nursing intervention for they know the benefits of such as supported by the concepts and principles embedded in those theories.
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...
Assignment 1
How organizations use information
Kieran Westgarth
Contents
What is Information? 2
Qualitative 2
Quantitative 2
Primary 2
Secondary 3
How is information used? 3
Sources of Information 3
External Sources 4
Internal Sources 4
Reliability of Data Sources 5
Good information 5
Valid 5
Reliable 5
Timely 6
Fit for Purpose 6
Accessible 6
Cost-effective 6
Sufficiently Accurate 7
Relevant 7
Having the right level of detail 7
From a source in which the user has confidence 7
Understandable by the user 8
What is Information?
Information is a fact provided or learned about something or someone. Organisations can use information to work more effectively. There are many different types of information that organisations can use. These are qualitative information, quantitative information, primary information and secondary information.
Qualitative
Qualitative information is non-numeric information that is based on opinions. It is often word based and can’t be measured. An example of this would be if you were trying a drink, you would describe the taste of the drink and say if it is good or bad. This information is based on your opinion. Qualitative information is useful for a business because it gives them more detailed feedback. However, this feedback would take a long time to process.
Quantitative
Quantitative information is information that can be seen as factual information and is not...

...Decision Analysis
Course Outline, Quarter I, 2006
Class Materials Topic
Hardcopy in Packet Other*
Introduction
1 Freemark Abbey Winery Structuring Decisions
Framework for Analyzing Risk
2 The North Star Concert North Star.xls Best Guess, Worst Case, Best Case; and Continuous Uncertainties
3 Engine Services, Inc.
Quick Start Guide to Crystal Ball
Analyzing Uncertainty, Probability Distributions, and Simulation Learning Module: Crystal Ball Litigate Demo
Engine Services.xls Language of Probability Distributions and Monte Carlo Simulation
4 Taurus Telecommunications Corporation: A New Prepaid Phone Card Learning Module: Tornado Sensitivity
Taurus Telecommunications.xls Sensitivity Analysis and Key Drivers
Time Value of Money
5 Dhahran Roads (A)
Evaluating Multiperiod Performance Multiperiod Pro Forma and NPV
6 Roadway Construction Company NPV, IRR, and Project Assumptions
Data and Distributions
7 Appshop, Inc. Simulating NPV
8 Lorex Pharmaceuticals
Introduction to Analytical Probability Distributions Lorex Exhibit 2.xls Distributions
9 Sprigg Lane (A) Sprigg2.xls Probability Distributions and Spreadsheet Modeling; Risk
10 The Waldorf Property
Chapter 11 of QBA: Text and Cases
Waldorf.xls Cumulative Distribution Functions, Adjustment for Risk
11 Amore Frozen Foods (A) Macaroni and Cheese Fill Targets
Sampling Amore.xls Sample Uncertainty
Regression
12 Hightower Department Stores:...

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