The physical use of roads by vehicles, when traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects, wasting time of motorists and passenger’s congestion reduces regional economic health. Delays, which may result in, disciplinary action or other personal losses. Wasted fuel increasing air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions owing to increased idling, acceleration and braking. Blocked traffic may interfere with the passage of emergency vehicles traveling to their destinations where they are urgently needed. In the following essay we are going to discuss about the different solutions to solve the traffic issues. ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE
Junction can be improved. Grade separation, using bridges (or, less often, tunnels) freeing movements from having to stop for other crossing movements. Ramp signaling, 'drip-feeding' merging traffic via traffic signals onto a congested motorway-type roadway. Reducing junctions. Local-express lanes, providing through lanes that bypass junction on-ramp and off-ramp zones. Limited-access road, roads that limit the type and amounts of driveways along their lengths. Reversible lanes, where certain sections of highway operate in the opposite direction on different times of the day/ days of the week, to match asymmetric demand. These pose a potential for collisions, if drivers do not notice the change in direction indicators. This may be controlled by Variable-message signs or by movable physical separation. Separate lanes for specific user groups (usually with the goal of higher people throughput with fewer vehicles) URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN
City planning and urban design practices can have a huge impact on levels of future traffic...