How to Shape Behavior of Manager in an Organization.

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Q.How to shape behavior of manager in an organization.
* Attempt to mold individuals by guiding their learning in graduated steps. * Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. * There are four ways to shape behavior such as:

(1) Positive Reinforcement
(2) Negative Reinforcement
(3) Punishment
(4) Extinction

(1) Positive Reinforcement
According to Skinner’s terminology, any form of incentives such as goals and rewards may be referred to as positive reinforcers and the receiving of the reward or achieving the goal is termed as positive reinforcement. In positive reinforcement, a particular behaviour is strengthened by the consequence of experiencing a positive condition

(2) Negative Reinforcement
In a similar fashion, a negative reinforcer is a stimulus one would desire to avoid. The act of escaping or avoiding a negative reinforcer is termed as negative reinforcement.Negative Reinforcement provides an unfavourable consequence that does not encourage repetition of undesirable behaviour. It is following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant.

For example, a strong disapproval can be shown towards tardy employees to make them aware if the fact that coming late to work is not allowed and not accepted.

Negative reinforcement is the strengthening of a particular behaviour by the consequence of experiencing a negative condition

Negative reinforcement is used commonly for education or reform. The use of fines, imprisonment is one such example of the use of negative reinforcement to warn of the negative consequences of associating with social ills.

Advantages of the use of negative reinforcement would be of course ideally the cultivation or strengthening of a desired behaviour after receiving the negative reinforcer. (2) Punishment
It is causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable...
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