SCR Working Principle
The SCR is a four-layer, three-junction and a three-terminal device and is shown in fig.a. The end P-region is the anode, the end N-region is the cathode and the inner P-region is the gate. The anode to cathode is connected in series with the load circuit. Essentially the device is a switch. Ideally it remains off (voltage blocking state), or appears to have an infinite impedance until both the anode and gate terminals have suitable positive voltages with respect to the cathode terminal. The thyristor then switches on and current flows and continues to conduct without further gate signals. Ideally the thyristor has zero impedance in conduction state. For switching off or reverting to the blocking state, there must be no gate signal and the anode current must be reduced to zero. Current can flow only in one direction. In absence of external bias voltages, the majority carrier in each layer diffuses until there is a built-in voltage that retards further diffusion. Some majority carriers have enough energy to cross the barrier caused by the retarding electric field at each junction. These carriers then become minority carriers and can recombine with majority carriers. Minority carriers in each layer can be accelerated across each junction by the fixed field, but because of absence of external circuit in this case the sum of majority and minority carrier currents must be zero. A voltage bias, as shown in figure, and an external circuit to carry current allow internal currents which include the follow¬ing terms: The current Ix is due to
•Majority carriers (holes) crossing junction J1
•Minority carriers crossing junction J1
•Holes injected at junction J2 diffusing through the N-region and crossing junc¬tion J1 and •Minority carriers from junction J2 diffusing through the N-region and crossing junction J1. Similarly I2 is due to six terms and I3 is due to four terms. The two simple analogues to...