WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?1
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT2
THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT5
•Scientific Management Theory
•Classical Management Theory
•Behavioural Science Approach
•Other Management Theories
BIBLIOGRAPHY 11 Introduction
This paper will explore the principles of management, the work of pioneers and founders of management and discuss whether they continue to impact on the modern day practice in construction, civil engineering and building services (referred to collectively as “the construction industry” throughout this paper). I will begin by attempting to define management. What is management?
Simply put, management is about identifying and solving problems and ensuring that people do what they are supposed to do. It has been described by Henry Mintzberg as “a practice where art, science, and craft meet”. Management is an art because there are definite principles of management; it is a science because by the application of these principles, predetermined objectives can be achieved; and it is a craft because management is dynamic and not static and has to be fashioned to meet the realities of a particular situation. Early twentieth century management studies scholar Mary Parker Follet defined management as “the art of getting things done through people”. This definition highlights a key aspect of management, which is recognizing the role and importance of other people and shows that management is a group activity, concerned with group efforts and not individual activity. Another definition of management is that of Stanley Vance who describes management as simply “the process of decision making and control over the actions of human beings for the express purpose of attaining predetermined goals”. Richard L. Daft puts it this way: “management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organizational resources”. Besides highlighting the functions of management of planning, organizing, leading and controlling, this definition also focuses on the attainment of organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. Henry Fayol’s definition of management also emphasises the functions of management. According to Fayol, “to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control”. In the words of George R. Terry management is “a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources”. This leads me to look at the functions of management. The functions of management
The functions of management are planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controlling, coordinating and communicating. These functions are part of the process of management, which continues until the organizational objectives are achieved. Planning
Planning is the first function performed by a manager. It defines the organizational goals and how these goals are to be achieved. According to Henry Fayol “purveyance, which is an essential element of planning, covers not merely looking into the future but making provisions for it. A plan is then a projected course of action”. According to Louis A. Allen “management planning involves the development of forecasts, objectives, policies, programmes, procedures, schedules and budgets”. Theo Haiman states that “planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. When a manager plans, he projects a course of action for the future, attempting to achieve a consistent co-ordinated structure of operations aimed at the desired result”. We therefore see that planning is goal oriented; it...