Organization Development (OD) is one of many American management techniques utilized in many part of the world. To setting this American origin techniques in different culture always has problem. Some of the biggest challenges for developing theories with cross-cultural relevance come in the area of organizational studies. Differences in behavior, work values, and culture have been studied by many researchers in many different countries. Several frameworks have proven useful for understanding cultural differences. (E.g. Youker, Mclean and Hofstede) Specific OD interventions are then examined separately to determine their fit with the values of those countries. This paper will explore reasons or hypothesis that make OD not successful in Asian countries. Author will focus on cause of behavioral differentiation between origin culture of OD (America) and Asian culture (Thailand, Japan and China) some samples will use to describe how some company success but other fails. Finally, some critical and suggestion will made with aimed at my opinion will help in understanding Asian culture and lead to effectiveness of organization development setting in Asia. Definitions of Organization Development and Culture
Organization Development has been defined in many ways. Most of authors have been U.S.-based. Beckhard (1969) defines OD as an effort that is planned, organization-wide, managed from the top, and designed to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned intervention in the organization’s process using behavioral science knowledge. French and Bell defined OD as a long range effort to improve an organization’s problem-solving and renewal process, particularly through a more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture with special emphasis on the culture of formal work teams with the assistance of a change agent, or catalyst, and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science, including action research (1995, p.14)
For my opinion, OD look like a set of structured techniques, rather than a single type of intervention. Researchers have developed competing typologies in an attempt to capture many dimensions of OD practices (French and Bell, 1995) For example, (Church Burke and Van Eydne 1994) identify six types of OD interventions (Long-term change, quality of work life, HRD planning, action research, skills training and group dynamics) and activities though a survey of current OD practitioners by use factor analysis to grouping the interventions. Although there is no widely accepted typology, the existing typologies classify OD interventions along two dimensions: 1.The target level of change is defined in term of individual, group, and organizational levels. 2.The nature of change along a continuum of task-oriented and people-oriented activities.
When culture or national borders are involved, it is to be considered for certain type of interventions (Harzing & Hofstede, 1996) Golembieski(1991) suggests that OD success is more likely if there is a close fit between OD design and national culture values. First thing that we should learn when we going to start setting Organization Development practice in different country is the culture of that country because it the most influence to the organization culture of the company. Before we can deal with cross culture, we must first define and agree on what “Culture” is? Also there are many different definitions of culture used in management today.
The American Heritage Dictionary defines culture as “The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions and all other products of human work and thought characteristic of a community or population.”
Organizational culture define by Robins as “a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. This is a set of...