How Carbon Dioxide May Affect Organisms Directly and Indirectly

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How carbon dioxide may affect organisms directly and indirectly Carbon dioxide is a molecule that is essential to the survival of nearly all organisms on our planet, as in some way or another they rely on carbon dioxide or its products to provide them with respiratory substrates. However, as I will elaborate later, carbon dioxide also has adverse effects on organisms. Carbon dioxide primarily affects all organisms as it is essential for the process of photosynthesis, in which organic compounds vital to a plant’s growth , and essential as food for a primary consumer , are synthesized. In photosynthesis carbon dioxide diffuses through the stomata on the underside of a plant, into the mesophyll layer of the leaf and finally into the photosynthesizing cells of a plant. In these cells it is accepted by Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP) as part of the light independent reaction. The RuBP and carbon dioxide then split into two molecules of Glycerate-3-phosphate (GP) and then are reduced by reduced NADP with ATP as an energy source, into two molecules of triose phosphate (TP). These molecules are then converted into glucose and other organic substaces. These organic substances directly influence the growth rate and yield of the plant, meaning carbon dioxide (and it’s concentration) are directly linked to plant growth. Carbon dioxide also influences plant growth through water intake and loss. To receive carbon dioxide a plant must open its stomata to allow diffusion of the gas into its leaves. However when a plant does this it also results in loss of water, as water vapour diffusing out of the leaves. Lost water however is drawn up through the xylem through a process called transpiration. Water is able to move in opposition to gravity due to the negative pressure of the vessels, and the cohesion-tension property of water, which allows water molecules to “stick together” and influence the movement of another water molecule. If it is a sunny day, and the carbon dioxide...
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