How Schools Can Prevent Bullying
University of St. Thomas
Research Professor: Dr. Alice Ledford
Research Advisor: Dr. Virginia Leiker
September 14, 2011
Table of Contents
Bullying with Adolescence
Bullying and Behavior
Externalities of Bullying
The Bully- Victim Relationship
This part of the study will be discussing the relevant literature connected with the study of bullying in elementary schools. This part of the study accounts the works that has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. All this would allow the readers to the field and position your research within the context. Moreover, this part of the study justifies the reason for research. This is closely connected with demonstrating that is known in the field. It is the knowledge of the field that allows one to identify the gap, which the research could fill. Concurrently, it allows the researcher to establish the theoretical framework and methodological focus.
Bullying With Adolescences
Adolescence is an especially dangerous time of life. The onset of puberty produces biological changes that are certainly unprecedented, if not scary. The adolescent's body changes visibly and while his appearance continues to change, his concept of self changes As well. The reception he receives from others changes, in addition to the way he responds to them. The boundaries once conceived of as permanent are uncertain and must be reconfigured. The adolescent will begin to see himself as having sexual drives and may feel great anxiety surrounding sexual matters. And in response to this myriad of intense feelings and changes, the adolescent presents himself as omnipotent and totally in control, lest anyone misperceive him for weak, confused, and searching for an identity. When their identities and body images are unclear, adolescents are especially sensitive to the way they are seen by others, especially their peer group. Here especially, the actual self is constantly being compared to the ideal self, a representation of what is important and valued by a particular group. The conglomeration of these factors makes adolescence highly susceptible to the development of shame. Additionally, adolescence is a period of time in which conflicts with parents are abundant. These conflicts are developmentally appropriate, as the individual is torn between wanting to please his parents and wanting to separate and differentiate his identity from theirs. This experience of feeling such opposing emotions may add to an already overwhelming sense of shame. Adolescence is confusing, in part, because self-consciousness is increased and personal differences are muffled. The primary concern for adolescents is how a wide circle of significant people sees them. This is much more important than whom and what they themselves have come to feel they are (Erikson, 1985). When individuals who are experiencing shame enter adolescence, these painful feelings are exaggerated. Shame alone is often debilitating and adolescence alone is often debilitating. Put together, the combination is intolerable and often combustible Furthermore, Erikson (1963) considers identity formation to be the cornerstone of adolescent psychosocial development. Josselson (1987) offers this definition, "Identity, then is a dynamic fitting together of parts of the personality with the realities of the social world so that a person has a sense both of internal coherence and meaningful relatedness to the real world" (pp. 12-13). An alternative to identity achievement is identity diffusion, which occurs when adolescents are not able to commit to definite life choices. Erikson (1985) stresses that at least some role confusion is a "normative and necessary" experience for adolescents, but it can lead to a more dysfunctional state, such...