“How Can Modern Behavioural Therapies Help a Client Accept Uncertainty About Their Future?”

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Abstract: “How can modern behavioural therapies help a client accept uncertainty about their future?” Introduction: I will demonstrate a good knowledge and understanding focusing on REBT and CT, combining them to produce a fluid response to answer the question.

Background:
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a generic umbrella term for a category of therapy approach that focus on the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and actions. There are many different types of CBT. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (Ellis’s REBT) and Cognitive Therapy (Beck’s CT) are the two main types. Current CBT practice originated in the 50s and 60s with Ellis, Lazarus (MultiModal Therapy) and Beck, building upon the earlier work of the Behaviourist movement.  The basic idea of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is perhaps not so new as Epictetus, a stoic philosopher and ex-roman slave in the first century said, in the Enrichidion: "Men are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them". Since Ellis and Beck, whilst standard CBT has evolved somewhat other approaches have arisen and developed. These have sometimes initially been for particular client groups.  CBT can now include a variety of therapeutic approaches known as the ‘third wave’ , any of which can be incorporated into a course of therapy, or used as stand-alone therapies:

Cognitive Therapy
Rational Emotive Therapy
Mindfulness Therapy - developed to reduce the number of relapses in patients with major depression. MBCT uses psychoeducation and encourages the patients to practice mindfulness meditation Acceptance and commitment Therapy - psychoeducation about key mechanisms, exercises in mindfulness and cognitive defusion. Behaviour Therapy - method for treating depression and other mental disorders. Dialectical Therapy - originally developed for parasuicidal patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD).Modifications have now been developed for substance abuse and eating disorders. Mindfulness and MBCT Schema focused Therapy - originally developed for the treatment of personality disorders and other chronic mental disorders Meta cognitive Therapy - evolved from classical cognitive therapy. Metacognition is the aspect of cognition that controls mental processes and thinking. Multimodal Therapy - a comprehensive action orientated therapy

CBT helps an individual make sense of their current problems, whilst understanding the influences of past experiences using a diagrammatic representation or "formulation" which directs the treatment.  This formulation may be highly individualised and more complex for severe problems, but may also include more simple vicious cycles when looking at what is helping to keep the problem going today. 

REBT and CT:
REBT and CT are very similar but different. have found the one key difference between the two is the type of is the main focus of attention: CT seems to focus mainly on inferential-type thinking (e.g. 'I am always failing'); whereas REBT emphasis is to focus on evaluative thinking (e.g. 'Failing so much is unbearable / proves I am a failure as a person / should not be happening'). The terminology also varies between two approaches. In a joint interview in 2000 for the American Psychological Association, Beck and Ellis they commented themselves that the differences were ‘slight’ being ‘mostly in technique and style, more than in perspective’. I have found that Ellis and Beck’s different styles are typical of the particular therapists - not of the therapies they founded. Both REBT and CT can be conducted aggressively or gently. Ellis is fairly directive in his approach, but many REBT therapists are more Socratic' (questioning). REBT recognizes that some emotions are helpful and some are hurtful. For instance, REBT sees extreme negative emotions such as depression and anxiety as hurtful, but...
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