Britain in 1750
In 1750 there were lots of agricultural jobs, men usually worked on farms (were laborers) doing physical jobs like: •
Looking after the animals
Being a milkman
The women did a lot more in the domestic system they would usually stay at home and: •
Sew and make clothes
They were very involved textiles and the making of cloth, they would spin the wool at home using hand looms or spinning wheels then the men would weave it into cloth. This was a good way to suplement the men’s income as farmers.
There were also a few craft-based jobs in 1750 such as cobblers or blacksmiths, and a few people worked on boats.
Britain in 1900
There was a big change in jobs in 1900 due to the industrial revolution and factories being built. There was hardly anybody working in agriculture as the pay was a lot better in factories, the only the people that were were the ones that lived in the countryside’s.
Lots of people worked in mines, mining for raw materials such as coal, iron ore and limestone to make iron and there were also quite a few copper mines around.
The manufacturing industry/factory system became huge thanks to the invention of a steam engine. Factories had to be built as the new steam-powered machines were too big to fit in people’s houses. The factories were 2 or more stories high with a couple of windows for light. The rooms were very big and packed with rows upon rows of machines; the workers would usually work on a couple of machines at a time. The working hours were very long and children as young as 4 or 5 would work in the factory’s as they could get into small gaps under and in the machine. The factories people worked in were: •
In the cotton works were big steam-powered machines such as power looms, spinning machines and winding machines. As transport had advanced lots of people had to go to work on canals as barge men, in railway stations/on trains and in boats/ships as sailors or crew.
Women still stayed at home and did the washing and cooking as they did in 1750, but some of them worked in cotton or wool mills.
Britain in 1750
There were three main sources of power in 1750 man, animal and natural power.
Man power was very physical; they usually worked on rural land and farms. They used small tools such as: •
Schythes/sickles (for harvesting)
Hoes (Breaking stones)
They used animals such as horses and oxen in 1750 to do land jobs such as ploughing earth (breaking up the lumps of soil and smoothing out the ground). They did this by using a plough and harrow. They were used to carry, pull and lift things that were too heavy for men. People also used horses to pull carts/coaches.
Wind and water are the two sources of natural power that was used in 1750. Wind power was used to move ships as it was the easiest way they could transport goods although the wind wasn’t always reliable. Waterwheels and windmills were used in flour mills and turned the millstone which grinded the wheat into flour.
In between 1750 and 1900 Richard Arkwright started building water-powered mills.
In 1769 he created the spinning jenny which was powered by water and in 1771 he made the first water-powered factory in Cromford, Derbyshire. It was rectangular, five stories high, with lots of windows to let light in and it was powered by a water-wheel.
Britain in 1900
In 1900 the main source of power was steam power.
In 1712 Thomas Newcomen invented the first atmospheric steam engine but in 1763-75 James Watt improved Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine. Watt’s engine was cheaper than Newcomen’s as it used 75% less coal, had an atmospheric engine and used a rotary motion. This is how it worked: •
The water was heated in the boiler.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document