How Brain Voluntarily Forgets Unwanted Memories

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  • Topic: Long-term potentiation, NMDA receptor, Hippocampus
  • Pages : 8 (2265 words )
  • Download(s) : 6
  • Published : March 2, 2013
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NCB Term Paper
A final project report submitted to

Course Instructor: Prof. Arvind Sahay
Teaching Associate: Shelly Narula
In partial fulfillment of the requirements of the courses project work

Neuroscience and Consumer Behaviour (NCB)
Group 7 Anuse Chandrakant Arshdeep Kaur Jegan S Maruthi Raj M Parmar Niravkumar Raghunath Babu T J

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AHMEDABAD

Contents
How brain voluntarily forgets unwanted memories ........................................................................................ 3 Opposing mechanisms support the removal of unwanted memories......................................................... 4 Where this is used in Marketing .................................................................................................................. 4 Synaptic plasticity ............................................................................................................................................. 6 Example – Indian .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Example – US .............................................................................................................................................. 10 Bibliography.................................................................................................................................................... 11

How brain voluntarily forgets unwanted memories
Neuroscientists from New York University and the University of California, Irvine have identified the “when” and “where” of molecular activity that results in the formation of short, intermediate, and long-term memories. This has led to the development of better therapeutic interventions for related illness. They say that memory formation results from a complex temporal and spatial relationship of molecular interaction and movement.

Neuroscientists had uncovered many aspects of molecular signaling relevant to the formation of memories. But the spatial relationships between molecules, and the role played by them when they are active, were less understood by them.

Scientists took the example of Aplysia californica, the California sea slug for the following reasons    It is an organism which is quite powerful; its neurons are 10 to 50 times larger than those of higher organisms, such as vertebrates It possesses a relatively small network of neurons - characteristics help us examine the molecular signaling during memory formation Its coding mechanism for memories is highly conserved in evolution, and thus is similar to that of mammals, making it an appropriate model for understanding how this process works in humans.

Two molecules were taken into consideration; MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase) and PKA (Protein kinase A), which earlier research has shown to be involved in many forms of memory and synaptic plasticity. The scientists had no clue how these molecules interacted. They induced behavourial reflex by given a small shock to the slugs’ tail and examined the activity of MAPK and PKA.

Findings : MAPK and PKA coordinate their activity both spatially and temporally in the formation of memories. Specifically, in the formation of intermediate-term (hours) and long-term (days) memories, both MAPK and PKA activity occur, with MAPK spurring PKA action. For short-term memories (less than 30 minutes), only PKA is active, with no involvement of MAPK.

Opposing mechanisms support the removal of unwanted memories

There are two methods by which brain can remove unwanted memories – 1. Direct Suppression Attempts to suppress retrieval directly were associated with greater right DLPFC activation than were recall attempts. Engagement of this DLPFC region was stronger for individuals who successfully induced more below-baseline forgetting of unwanted memories. Efforts to ensure that awareness is exclusively occupied by alternate...
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