How Attitude Influences an Organization

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An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, event, activities, ideas, or just about anything in person’s surrounding. Eagly and Chaiken, for example, define an attitude "a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor." Though it is sometimes common to define an attitude as discrete emotion or affect toward an object, affect is generally understood to be distinct from attitude as a measure of favorability. This definition of attitude allows for one's evaluation of an attitude object to vary from extremely negative to extremely positive, but also admits that people can also be conflicted toward an object meaning that they might at different times express both positive and negative attitude toward the same object. There is a famous saying, “Attitude is everything” While attitude might not really be “everything,” in many situations it is the single most significant determining factor of success. Although some attitudes are influenced by core values, it is an element in producing, at all levels in an organization, a quality product or service, and it is greatly influenced by numerous factors. Employee attitude about product, about work, about manager and about the company will pretty well determine the quality of the work. Most attitudes are formed as person grows up. Childhood experiences, Teachers, friends , parents, etc. all influence people’s attitude. Once an attitude is formed, it’s pretty much the way a person will think about any subject. People vote, select a spouse, pick an institute and raise children based on their attitude. Attitudes are affected by repetitive messages, advertising, examples, training and communications. Can we measure attitudes to determine their impact? The answer is yes. Many measurements and scales are used to examine attitudes. Attitudes can be difficult to measure because measurement is arbitrary, meaning people have to give attitudes a scale to measure it against, and attitudes are ultimately a hypothetical construct that cannot be observed directly. Explicit measures tend to rely on self-reports or easily observed behaviors. These tend to involve bipolar scales (e.g., good-bad, favorable-unfavorable, support-oppose, etc.). Explicit measures can also be used by measuring the straightforward attribution of characteristics to nominate groups, such as "I feel that teenagers are....?" or "I think that men are...?" Likert scales and other self-reports are also commonly used. Implicit measures are not consciously directed and are assumed to be automatic, which may make implicit measures more valid and reliable than explicit measures (such as self-reports). For example, people can be motivated such that they find it socially desirable to appear to have certain attitudes. An example of this is that people can hold implicit prejudicial attitudes, but express explicit attitudes that report little prejudice. Implicit measures help account for these situations and look at attitudes that a person may not be aware of or want to show. Implicit measures therefore usually rely on an indirect measure of attitude. Organizations carry out their activity in a competitional economic environment which is permanently changing, which compells them to permanently adapt to new conditions. [6] This adaptation involves an organizational change which comprises changes of attitude, processes, structures, mentalities and which has effects both on costumers and on the members of the organization. [5] The change may be caused not only by external factors, but also by internal factors such as: low productivity, conflicts, strikes, absenteeism, forces which may occur as a response of the organizational changes meant to deal with the external environment. [4] The success of an organizational change depends on a certain attitude of the members of the organization towards change, on the way in which they understand its role,...
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