204 American History since 1865
March 26, 2012
Africans had fought very hard to obtain equal rights in the United States. After the civil war the country begin their journey in America History with period known as Reconstruction (Bowls 2011, 1.1). There are several reasons why the nation went to war, and one of the most important was the right to continue the practice of slavery. From 1865 to the present, African Americans have worked to end their isolation through legislation, protest, and major contributions to society. In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation. This proclamation did not free the slaves but it was the first step toward making this a reality (Bowles, 2011, 1.1). The proclamation would only apply only to states in rebellion. The Emancipation proclamation is one of those stupendous facts in human history with marks not only an era in the progress of the nation, but an approach in history of the world (Journal of Blacks pg. 108-109). The civil war did not bring an end to racial hatred and violence in the south. Neither military leaders nor politicians can change the ingrained cultural beliefs of the people (Bowles, 2011 1.1 para10). After 1865 slavery could no longer structure relations between the races (1999, Segregation and Desegregation). The Black Codes codified some of these feelings when 1865 southern states government created legislation that restricted and control the lives of the ex-slaves (Bowel 2011 1.1 para10). The Black Codes restricted African Americans to married other than their own race, they could not carried guns, they could only work on farms, and if they did not follow this rules they could put in jail or put them to enforced work which was the same as slavery (Bowles, 2011 1.1 para10). The president at the time supported this codes which made more difficult the lives of the ex-slaves. Meanwhile, many blacks who enlisted in the military encountered blatant discrimination while in the service and, them after risking their lives for the preservation of the free world, retuned to a society that continued to deem them second-class citizens (Levy, 1998). The only significant racial reform enacted by the federal government in the decade after the end of World War 11 was the desegregation of the armed forces order by President Truman in 1948. To some blacks, even this represented a pyrrhic victory (Levy, 1948). African Americans also suffer from segregation. “Segregation; is the practice by law or custom, of separating groups, spatially according to race, class, or ethnicity” (Segregation and Desegregation, 2001). Racial segregation began after the end of slavery, when new laws barred blacks from many occupations, restricted voting rights, and designated separate public facilities for black and white populations (Segregation and Desegregation, 2011). Segregation existed somewhat differently in the North and the South of the country. Different conditions in the North and South led to different kinds of social organization among African communities (Segregation and Desegregation, 2011). “Segregation in a legal sense began with laws separating blacks and whites in education” (Segregation, 2010). Although blacks paid taxes as whites, they did not receive funding for their schools and they had to rely on church and missionary organizations to create their own schools (segregation, 2010). A law that emerged was separate facilities for blacks in all areas, assigning African Americans a separate and degraded status in transportation, dining, places of entertainment, and even in cemeteries (Segregation, 2010). The customs and laws associated with segregation created a deeply entrenched culture of white supremacy, which radicalized every aspect of life in the South. The laws prevented blacks and whites from joining together in union meetings, political-reform organizations, or...