Horticulture

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HORTICULTURAL CROPS (AGR452) (APR 2011)
Question 1
a) Define the following terms:- (5m)

i) Horticulture:- the science and art of cultivating flowers, fruits, vegetables, turf and ornamental plants in an orchard, garden, nursery or greenhouse on anlarge or small scale. Often considered as those require intensive culture and grown in small areas.

ii) Horticulturist :- A noun reffering to a specialist in horticulture.

b) 5 common examples of classification used in horticulture. (5m)

* Classification by use
* Classification by life span
* Classification by climatic requirements.
* Classification by growth habit
* Classification by stem and leaf texture.
* Classification by elevation and plant life zones.

c) Importance of classifying the horticultural crop. (10 m)

i) To know adaptability of crops
* Tolerance to climate :- temperature, moisture.
ii) To know the growing habit of crops.
* Must know type of crop :- creeping, climbing, legume, flat area. iii) To understand climatic requirement of different crops. * Seasonal crop :- temperate (apple,grape) & tropical crop (mango, durian, rambutan) iv) To know the growing season of the crop

* Plant strees march :- when strees it can produce flower or seed before die. v) Easy disease control and prevention control.
vi) Easy the process in crop names, identification aand review guide. vii) Simplify plant collection initiatives, research, breeding and specialized development efforts. viii) Facilitate efficient communication, dissemination and retrieval of scientific information. ix) The grouping of crops will indicate that these crops may have similar uses, adaptation, growth habits and methods of culture. x) In disease control and prevention, such classification is important due to commonality (sharing features / attributes) of some diseases as in potato and tomato. Both are affected by the fungal disease called late blight (Miles, undated). xi) Useful reference in crop names and identification and as a review guide. xii) To the farm manager himself, the same list will offer benefits in finding alternative crops for specific uses

Qustion 2
a) The following requirements in orchid gardening.

i) Light :-
* Light is a key factor in growing healthy orchids.
* Proper light must be provided to the plant for better yield. * Direct sunlight may cause plants to burn, and too little light will prevent plants from flowering. * Light requirements for orchids vary with the species but generally 4 hours of sunlight is the minimum requirement for orchid cultivation * Leaf color is a good indicator of the amount of light a plant is receiving. * Orchids should have bright green, healthy leaves.

* The leaves are bright green when they receive optimum sunlight, they turn dark green in color when they get less light and are reddish green when they receive extra light.

ii) Watering :-
* Watering is very important in growing orchids.
* Watch the weather when watering.
* Better to under-watering (may cause plants to wilt but will not die) than over- watering (may kill the plants). * Over-watering can be detrimental to the plant and kill the roots and should therefore be avoided. * Best time to do watering is around 10:30 am and 4:30 pm. * When using tap water, allow the water to settle overnight in the tank before use (to reduce chlorine damage). * Orchid plants generally need periodic watering and the duration might vary with plant species and season. * Orchids are air plants and the pseudobulbs efficiently store water. * Cattleya, oncidium and dendrobium prefer to dry out between watering. They can be watered in a sink for about 30 seconds and drained before putting them back into the pots. * Reduce watering frequency during rainy weather. Don’t water the plants during rainy season * The...
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