Horizontal, Vertical and Internal Communication in an Organization

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Technical Report Writing – Summer 2011

Horizontal, Vertical and Internal Communication in an Organization

Research Paper submitted to: Professor Pacelli Eugenio

Renory L. Bilugan
5/29/2011

Table of Contents:
Page
I.Introduction2
II.Body of the Report3
a.Vertical and Horizontal Communication
b.Internal Communication
1.Memos
a.Definition of a Memo
b.Purpose of a Memo
c.Audience Analysis
d.General Format
e.Common Types of Memos
i.Directive
ii.Response to an Inquiry
iii.Trip Report
iv.Field/Lab Reports
2.Advice letter (to Staff or other departments
3.Company Policy Updates
III.Conclusion22
IV.Recommendation23
V.Personal Reaction24
VI.Bibliography25

Introduction:
This research paper discusses three (3) types of communication within an organization, namely: Horizontal, Vertical and Internal Communication, its advantages, disadvantages and scientific studies done by experts in order to show how effective or ineffective one type of communication is from the other.

Body of the Report:
Vertical Communication is the communication between those who are on different levels of authority within the company e.g. manager to employee, general manager to managers, foreman to machine operator, head of the department to cashiers, etc. Vertical communication occurs between hierarchically positioned persons and can involve both downward and upward communication flows. Downward communication is more prevalent than upward communication. Larkin and Larkin (1994) suggest that downward communication is most effective if top managers communicate directly with immediate supervisors and immediate supervisors communicate with their staff. A wealth of evidence shows that increasing the power of immediate supervisors increases both satisfaction and performance among employees. This was first discovered by Donald Pelz (1952) and is commonly referred to as the Pelz effect. Pelz was attempting to find out what types of leadership styles led to employee satisfaction (informal/formal, autocratic/participative, management oriented/front line-oriented). He found that what matters most is not the supervisor’s leadership style but whether the supervisor has power. One way to give supervisors power is to communicate directly with them and to have them provide input to decisions. Ensuring that supervisors are informed about organizational issues/changes before staff in general, and then allowing them to communicate these issues/changes to their staff, helps reinforce their position of power. When the supervisor is perceived as having power, employees have greater trust in the supervisor, greater desire for communication with the supervisor, and are more likely to believe that the information coming from the supervisor is accurate (Roberts and O’Reilly 1974). Jablin (1980), after reviewing almost 30 years of research, pronounced the Pelz effect to be “one of the most widely accepted propositions about organizational communication.” Downward Communication: is more than passing on information to subordinates. It may involve effectively managing the tone of the message, as well as showing skill in delegation to ensure the job is done effectively by the right person. Although the content priorities of downward communication have not been definitively demonstrated, there is some level of certainty with respect to the best approach to downward communication (Jablin 1980), i.e., oTop managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors oImmediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports oOn issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly Perhaps the most tried and true rule of effective downward communication is to: Communicate orally, then follow up in writing (Gibson and Hodgetts 1991). Upward...
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