Table of Contents (Sorry about the length of this thing. It’s more of a compilation of notes than anything else—much like a referencing tool.)

Chapter 1 –

Scientific Method (2)

Chapter 2 –

Uncertainty in Measurement (2)

SigDigs/Figs (2)

Rounding (2)

Scientific Notation (2)

Unit Conversions (2-3)

Percent (3)

Chapter 3 –

Formulas (3)

Metric Conversions (3)

Freezing and Boiling Points (3)

Temperature, Heat, and Specific Heat (3-4)

Heat and Phase Changes (4)

Chapter 4 –

Physical States of Matter (4-5)

Elements, Compounds, Mixtures (5)

Chemical Formulas (5)

Physical and Chemical Changes (5)

Potential and Kinetic Energy (5)

Conservation of Mass and Energy (5)

Chapter 5 –

Atomic Notation (6)

Atomic Mass (6)

Quantum Mechanics (6)

Energy Levels and Sublevels and Configurations (6)

Chapter 6 –

Groups and Periods of Elements (6-7)

Periodic Trends (7)

Properties of Elements (7-8)

Valence Electrons (8)

Ionization Energy (8)

Ionic Charges (8)

Chapter 7 –

Writing Chemical Formulas (8)

Binary Ionic, Ternary Ionic, and Binary Molecular Compounds (8) Chapter 8 –

Balancing Equations (9)

Combination Reactions (9)

Decomposition Reactions (9)

Combustion Reactions (9)

Single Replacement Reactions (9)

Double Replacement Reactions (9)

Chapter 9 –

The Mole (9)

The Mole’s Heart (10)

Percent Composition (10)

Empirical Formula (10)

Molecular Formula (10)

Chapter 1:

Scientific Method

I. Observation – senses for info

II. Question

III. Collect Data

IV. Hypothesis – can be tested

V. Experiment – control group & experimental (w/ independent and dependent variable) group

a. Independent variable – what scientist changes

b. Dependent variable – result of independent variable

VI. Conclusion – is the hypothesis correct?

VII. Implement – (probably an unnecessary step, dunno why the hell it’s here) do stuff with your results

Chapter 2:

Uncertainty in Measurement

Each measurement has a degree of uncertainty, obviously. I guess you can estimate the degree of it, somehow… The book never says how… but just do it, and that degree will be written as a plus-minus statement. The smaller the degree of uncertainty, the more precise the measurement. SigDigs/Figs

I. If x > 1:

a. W/ decimal point – count all the digits (1.09834 has 6 sigdigs)

b. W/o decimal point – count all the digits from the left except trailing zeros (1200 has 2 sigdigs) II. If x < 1:

a. Count the first non-zero digit and on (0.0012043 has 5 sigdigs) III. Adding/subtracting:

a. The number with the least sigdigs past the decimal limits the answer IV. Multiplying/dividing:

a. The least total number of sigdigs limits the answer

Rounding

…You’ve got to be joking.

Scientific Notation

I. Based on powers of 10

II. 1 < x < 10

III. Count the number of places you move the decimal, and attach an exponent to the “x10” portion of the notation

a. Going right – negative exponent

b. Going left – positive exponent

IV. Round to the tenths place (normally)

V. Examples

a. 921349 – 9.2 x 10^5

b. 0.02589 – 2.6 x 10^-2

Unit Conversions

I. Set up an equation of fractions you will multiply; the diagonal units will be the same II. The second ratio in the proportion is the conversion factor III. Example

a. Convert 200 cm to meters.

(200 cm/1) x (1m/100cm) = 2 m

Percent

Shouldn’t be a problem.

Chapter 3:

Formulas

I. Density = Mass / Volume

II. Celsius = (Fahrenheit – 32)(5/9)

III. Fahrenheit = [Celsius x (9/5)] + 32

IV. Kelvin = Celsius + 273

V. q = mc T

a. q – joules, calories

b. m – mass

c. T – change in temperature

Metric Conversions

I. Based on powers of 10

II. SI (International System of Units)

a. mass – kilogram

b. length – meter

c. time – seconds

d. temperature – Celsius

e. volume – liters

f. kilo = 1000

g. centi = .01 or 1/100

h. milli = .001 or 1/1000

Freezing and Boiling Points

I....