Homosexuality and Bisexuality

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Choosing to have sexual relationship with the same sex is known as homosexuality, the opposite sex (heterosexuality), or both sexes are known as bisexuality. All of these are different types of sexual orientations. In the past there were some people who believed that heterosexuality was what God had said to be normal and good while anything other than that would be the work of the devil or a sin against God. There have been many theories that account for the development of diverse sexual orientations in humans. One of the most influential ones is known as the neurohormonal theory. The neurohormonal theory looks at the prenatal androgen levels, with heterosexual men on the higher end, heterosexual women on the lower end, and homosexual men and women at intermediate levels (Ellis, Ames 1987: 248). With all the studies that have been conducted, it seems that the role of the prenatal sex hormones androgen may give us the different types of sexual orientations. Biological factors seem to outweigh environmental factors when it comes to contributing to sexual orientations. Not saying that environmental factors do not contribute to developing sexual orientations, because that still remains uncertain at the moment. Biologists would strongly disagree while psychologists would agree that environmental factors influence sexual orientation. If a person growing up is sexually abused or neglected, or lived in a dominantly paternal or maternal environment, Psychologists would argue that these types of factors can contribute to shaping a person’s sexual identity. Joan Roughgarden would argue that a person’s sexual orientation is like a person’s accent. It’s developed at a very early age and most people can’t change it while others can. (Roughgarden 2009: 256)  Though the accents are not genetic, they are thick most of the times because of the secluded surrounding environment that people live in for long extended periods of times that helps keep it intact. An example of this would be that older generation people who are let’s say born and raised in England have a thick English accent and most of the times they can’t stray away from their accents because all their lives they were exposed to it. While other younger people can change their accents because they might be possibly exposed to more diverse cultures or live abroad where their mother tongue is a secondary language, Roughgarden compares that with sexuality saying that some people can sway into heterosexuality or homosexuality and can be open when it comes to their orientations. (Roughgarden 2009: 257)   After having read Mustanskis’ article, A Critical Review of Recent Biological Research on Human Sexual Orientation, the levels of androgen or the lack of the hormone has some effect on an individual’s sexual orientation. Androgen is a hormone that develops male characteristics like penis and body hair. Females also have androgen, but in low amount. Testosterone is a type of androgen and it influences the sperm-cell formation. (Ellis, Ames 1987: 233) In two studies conducted by Pearcey, Singh and others in 1999, two types of lesbian women, either butch or femme were looked at to determine which group had a higher level of testosterone. In both studies they found significant differences in salivary testosterone levels among lesbian women (Mustanksi, Chivers, Bailey 2002: 92). Since the butch lesbian women are consider to be more masculine, they may have a higher amount of testosterone levels in their bodies compared to the more femme lesbians. Prenatal sex hormones can also influence sexual orientation, and these influences may be seen later on in adult life. There are certain hormonal problems that can occur in a person body where they either produce too much androgen or not enough. And this ability to produce too much or not enough androgen may have an effect on sexual orientation. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia syndrome (CAH), the body cannot produce...
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