The common cold is the most common human disease globally affected both men and women. Not to mention that in the Philippines there were clinical studies and evidences that number of incidences was increasing not just in big cities but also in rural and far flung areas. In such, as student researcher I would like to personally identify my own basic home remedy just to alleviate crisis brought by this most common diseases- COUGH AND COLDS. Adults typically have two to five infections annually and children may have six to ten colds a year (and up to twelve colds a year for school children). Rates of symptomatic infections increase in the elderly due to a worsening immune system. In this paper I would like to review the signs and symptoms, causes, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, management for cough and cold. Signs and symptoms
The typical symptoms of a cold include cough, runny nose, nasal congestion and a sore throat, sometimes accompanied by muscle ache, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite. A sore throat is present in about 40% of the cases and a cough in about 50%, while muscle ache occurs in about half. In adults, a fever is generally not present but it is common in infants and young children. The cough is usually mild compared to that accompanying influenza. While a cough and a fever indicate a higher likelihood of influenza in adults, a great deal of similarity exists between these two conditions. A number of the viruses that cause the common cold may also result in asymptomatic infections. The color of the sputum or nasal secretion may vary from clear to yellow to green and does not predict the class of agent causing the infection. Causes of cough and cold:
The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The most commonly implicated virus is a rhinovirus (30–80%), a type of picornavirus with 99 known serotypes. Others include: coronavirus (10–15%), influenza viruses, human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and metapneumovirus. Frequently more than one virus is present. In total over 200 different viral types are associated with colds. Transmission
The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects). Which of these routes is of primary importance has not been determined, however hand-to-hand and hand-to-surface-to-hand contact seems of more importance than transmission via aerosols. The viruses may survive for prolonged periods in the environment (over 18 hours for rhinoviruses) and can be picked up by people's hands and subsequently carried to their eyes or nose where infection occurs. Transmission is common in daycare and at school due to the proximity of many children with little immunity and frequently poor hygiene. These infections are then brought home to other members of the family. There is no evidence that recirculated air during commercial flight is a method of transmission. However, people sitting in proximity appear at greater risk. Rhinovirus-caused colds are most infectious during the first three days of symptoms; they are much less infectious afterwards. Weather
The traditional folk theory is that a cold can be "caught" by prolonged exposure to cold weather such as rain or winter conditions, which is how the disease got its name. While colds are caused by viruses and not cold temperatures, there is some controversy over the role of body cooling as a risk factor for the common cold; the majority of the evidence suggests that it may result in greater susceptibility to infection. This may occur due to cold induced changes in the respiratory system decreased immune response and low humidity increasing viral transmission rates, perhaps due to dry air allowing small viral droplets to disperse farther and stay in...