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Holography (from the Greek ὅλος hólos, "whole" + γραφή grafē, "writing, drawing") is a technique which enables three-dimensional images to be made. It involves the use of a laser, interference, diffraction, light intensity recording and suitable illumination of the recording. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present, thus making the image appear three-dimensional.

The holographic recording itself is not an image; it consists of an apparently random structure of either varying intensity, density or profile. Contents

1 Overview and history
2 How holography works
2.1 Laser
2.2 Apparatus
2.3 Process
2.4 Holography vs. photography
3 Physics of holography
3.1 Plane wavefronts
3.2 Point sources
3.3 Complex objects
3.4 Mathematical model
4 Recording a hologram
4.1 Items required
4.2 Hologram classifications
4.2.1 Amplitude and phase modulation holograms
4.2.2 Thin holograms and thick (volume) holograms 4.2.3 Transmission and reflection holograms
4.3 Holographic recording media
4.4 Copying and mass production
5 Reconstructing and viewing the holographic image
5.1 Volume holograms
5.2 Rainbow holograms
5.3 Fidelity of the reconstructed beam
6 Applications
6.1 Art
6.2 Data storage
6.3 Dynamic holography
6.4 Hobbyist use
6.5 Holographic interferometry
6.6 Interferometric microscopy
6.7 Sensors or biosensors
6.8 Security
6.9 Other applications
7 Non-optical holography
8 Things often confused with holograms
9 Holography in fiction
10 See also
11 References
12 Reference sources
13 Further reading
14 External links

Overview and history


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