John Holland's Personality-Type Theory
John Holland's model holds that different personality types are best suited to different careers. He proposed six basic personality types and then identified careers they were best suited to enter. Holland's model is a modern trait-factor theory that has been very influential in vocational counseling. It is employed by popular interest inventories such as the Self-Directed Search, Vocational Preference Inventory, and Strong Interest Inventory. Personality Types:
Holland's six personality types are arranged along a hexagonal model with opposite work environments across from one another on the hexagon and more closely related work environments next to one another. The Realistic type contrasts most sharply with the Social type, the Investigative with the Enterprising, and the Conventional with the Artistic.
| |Realistic | | |Investigative | | |Conventional | | | | |Artistic | | |Enterprising | | |Social | |
These individuals deal best with an environment that is objective and physical. They like stereotypical masculine, outside and hands-on activities. They are most comfortable in work environments dealing with machines, equipment, tools, nature, athletics and crafts. They tend to dislike Social occupations. Investigative
These individuals deal best with an environment that is intellectual. They enjoy working with ideas, words or symbols. They prefer scientific and theoretical pursuits that can largely be pursued through their individual effort. They tend to dislike Enterprising occupations. Social
These individuals deal best with an environment that involves working with people in some helping, teaching, or serving capacity. They enjoy social interaction and being around others. They tend to dislike Realistic occupations. Conventional
These individuals deal best with an environment that is concrete and predictable. They enjoy structure and routine, and often like office practices and computational work. They tend to dislike Artistic occupations. Enterprising
These individuals deal best with an environment that is adventurous, energizing and challenging. They are extroverted and enjoy power, dominance, and persuasive communication. Business and supervisory occupations are chosen, and they tend to dislike Realistic occupations. Artistic
These individuals deal best with an environment that allows for creative self-expression. They like music, drama, literature, fine arts, and other self-expressive activities. They tend to dislike Conventional occupations.
The Holland Hexagon
|Careers and Six Basic Types | |John Holland, a career specialist, developed a theory that people and careers can be characterized by six basic "types". These | |"types", or Holland Codes, are commonly referred to as RIASEC to reflect the first letter in each of the themes. | | | |R for Realistic | |S for Social | | | |I for Investigative | |E for Enterprising | |...
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