Suggesting that holistic nursing care should be introduced in postgraduate critical care nursing, Lane et al (2005) point out that critical care education is an important aspect of professional development for a critical care nurse. Interdependence between physiological and psychosocial theories and concepts is important for the development of critical care educational programs. A multidisciplinary educational framework provides a deeper understanding of all those factors that contribute to ill health. To enhance patient care outcomes a strategic framework for research, education, clinical excellence and quality assurance needs to be established. Several creative modalities can offer nurses new perspectives on how to improve patient care. Lane (2005) emphasized on the link between creativity and healing and pointed out that many hospitals have used institutional programs including arts and creativity. Lane suggests that since nurses have a unique bond with patients, they play a crucial role in bringing creative arts into patient care and gives many recommendations for implementing art media such as music, drawing, dance, writing within the hospital and clinical setting. Patients’ expectations of nursing care including holistic spiritual care using frameworks of humanistic nursing were studied by Davis (2005). the themes important in nursing care according to the patients were identified as ‘good’ and ‘bad’ nursing, surveillance and competence, spiritual care expectations and the concept of time. On considering sociological and managerial aspects of care, Cabana and Jee (2004) suggest that continuity of care has been promoted as an important aspect of health care delivery system. The authors determined that sustained continuity of care on the quality of patient care and conducted a systematic review through Medline search. The texts of 260 articles on continuity of care and patient care were selected and results indicated that none of the studies documented negative effects of increased SCOC on the quality of care. SCOC has been found to be associated with patient satisfaction, decreased hospitalizations or emergency department visits, improved recognition of preventive services. The authors suggest that sustained continuity of care improves quality of care and this is seen in case of patients with chronic conditions. Thus all plans to promote such methods of care must target patients with chronic conditions to get maximum impact. The importance of power and status within the nursing profession is also an important determinant of patient care and comprehensively defines patient care provided. Kuokkanen et al (2002) argues that the empowerment ideology has been adopted in the conceptual framework of nursing care, training and management. The authors examine critical care, long term care and public health nurses' views on personal qualities and performance in relation to nurse empowerment. This suggests that nurses have a positive image of their empowerment and any ideal model of nursing management emphasizes aspect of nurse empowerment which leads to enhancement in professional competence, nursing education and personnel management defining an interactive power-driven relationship between patients, nurses and other healthcare professionals in a clinical setting. Another equally important aspect of patient care is maintaining privacy of patient information and confidentiality of all patient records which is a legal as well as social requirement (Erickson and Millar, 2005). As far as administration of medicines is concerned, the following guidelines have been suggested by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (refer to Nursing and Midwifery Council Guidelines for Administration of Medicines, 2002). The Medical treatment should: * be based, whenever possible, on the patient's informed consent and awareness of the purpose of the treatment * be clearly written, typed or computer-generated and be indelible *...
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