Hog raising is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines such that there is a proliferation of backyard producers, which dominates the swine industry and a healthy viable commercial sector. Despite the crises facing the swine industry, still many people are venturing in this enterprise. This manual hopes to bring appropriate technology to the interested farmers and would-be swine producers in order that they may realize profitable production and improve their quality of life. BREED OF SWINE
There are many imported breeds in the country today and its sometimes difficult to determine the best breed most suited to our conditions. Here is a guide to help you select the breed to raise depending on your purpose, money and experience. YORKSHlRE OR LARGEWHITE
Yorkshires are entirely white with medium, erect ears. Sows have superior mothering ability, farrow and wean large litters and are excellent milkers. They adapt well to confinement but not to rugged conditions. Slaughter animals yield a high dressing percentage, produce fine quality meat and compare favorably with other breeds in growth and economy of gains. LANDRACE
Landrace are white, have short legs and medium to large drooping ears. The sows are noted for their excellence in mothering ability and litter size. They are heavy milkers and produce pigs with superior rate of growth and efficiency in feed utilization. When crossed with other breeds, they produce pigs of highly acceptable carcass quality. They are however, weak on the feet and legs and have problems adapting to rugged conditions. Such defects should be corrected by proper selection and breeding. DUROC
The Duroc color is of varying shades of red. The sows are prolific and are good mothers. They produce pigs that are superior in growth rate, feed conversion, and "their performance under rugged conditions is better than any of the white breeds.
Hampshires are black with a white belt around the shoulder and body. They are generally short legged and lack body thickness. The sows have a reputation of weaning a high percentage of the pigs farrowed and are able to adapt to very rugged conditions. The growth rate, however has generally been average or below. BERKSHIRE
Berkshires are black with six white points -four white feet, some white in the face and tail. The ears are erect and inclined forward as the animal grows older. They are known for their style, meatiness and good adaptability to rugged conditions. They have desirable length, depth and balance ofbody but lack good growth and efficiency in converting feed to weigh gain. The sows are not as prolific as the other breeds. PIETRAIN
The Pietrain is a very meaty type of pig with spotted black and white color. It has well-shaped hams, loin and shoulders. Ears are erect, The carcass has a high lean meat percentage, but it has a poor body constitution. Feed efficiency is not really good and they are a little bit slow grower. This breed is also highly susceptible to stress. Thus, Pietrain is only worthwhile in crosses but not as purebreeds. Table 1,. Characteristics of the Different Breeds of Pigs
BREEDCOLOREARSTYPECOUNTRY OF ORIGINOBSERVATIONS
LandraceWhiteHangingMeatDenmarkLong face, good mothers, weak legs, prolific Large whiteWhiteStandingMeatEnglandFertile, high quality meat, fast grower BershireBlack w/ 6 white pointsStandingMeatUSAShort, black skin, more resistant to diseases compared to white breeds HampshireBlack with white bandsStandingMeatUSAShort, good quality meat, strong legs Duroc JerseyRed (golden)2/3 erect
1/3 hangingMeatUSAGood constitution, strong legs, fast grower, resistant to stress PietrainBlack & whiteStandingVery meatyBelgiumVery meaty ham and very suscep-tible to stress
When selecting breeder sows on the basis of physical appearance, consider the following: •The gilt should have well-developed udder with a...