Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions and Tourist Behaviors a Review and Conceptual Framework

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Hofstede’s cultural Dimensions and tourist behaviors A review and conceptual Framework

Las dimensiones culturales y la conducta turística según Hofstede: análisis y marco conceptual Lalita A. Manrai1 Ajay K. Manrai

Received: January 14, 2011 Accepted: September 18, 2011

Abstract This paper develops a conceptual framework for analyzing tourist behaviors and identifies three categories of behaviors based on the applications of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and the processes underlying these influences. Our findings indicate that tourist behaviors in the Before-Travel, During-Travel, and After-Travel stages differ significantly in terms of the applicability and process through which Hofstede’s cultural dimensions operate. The results of our analysis suggest three categories of behavioral patterns, namely, “Social Interaction Driven Travel Behaviors,” (SID), “Risk Tendencies Driven Travel Behaviors,” (RTD), and “Collectivity Orientation Driven Travel Behaviors,” (COD). SID relates to the evaluation of travel experiences in the after-travel stage. The dominant cultural values associated with SID are Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, and Power Distance. These three values act either independently or in pairs or all three together. RTD relates to the consumption of travel products in the during-travel stage, and COD relates to the formation of travel preferences in the before-travel stage. Individualism/Collectivism and Uncertainty Avoidance are associated with both RTD and COD. However, the underlying processes differ for these two categories of travel behaviors. In addition to their independent influences on travel behaviors, these two values associated with RTD and COD also have an interactive effect. For RTD, the Uncertainty Avoidance motive determines the Individualism/Collectivism outcome, whereas, for COD, the opposite is true: the Individualism/Collectivism determines the Uncertainty Avoidance outcome. The paper also discusses the application of a fifth cultural dimension, Confucian Dynamism (short-term versus long-term orientation), for the study of tourists’ behaviors. Keywords: Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, tourist behaviors, traveller’s behaviors, Confucian Dynamism.

* The authors would like to dedicate this paper to Dr. Geert Hofstede whose work inspired this research. We would also like to acknowledge the valuable comments of the two anonymous reviewers and the journal editor in finalizing this manuscript. 1. Dr. Ajay K. Manrai and Dr. Lalita A. Manrai are both Professors of Marketing in the Department of Business Administration at the University of Delaware, Newark. .

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Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science

December 2011

resumen En este artículo se desarrolla un marco conceptual de análisis de patrones de conducta del turista e identifica tres categorías de conducta basadas en las aplicaciones de dimensiones culturales de Hofstede y los procesos subyacentes de estas influencias. Nuestros resultados indican que las conductas del turista en los estadios de Antes-del-viaje, Durante-el-viaje y Después-del-viaje difieren significativamente en términos de la aplicabilidad y el procesos a través de los cuales las dimensiones culturales de Hofstede operan. El resultado de nuestro análisis sugiere tres categorías de patrones de conducta, a saber, “Conductas de Viaje Dirigidas a Interacción Social” (SID por sus siglas en inglés), “Conductas de Viaje Dirigidas a Tendencias de Riesgo” (RTD por sus siglas en inglés), y “Conductas de Viaje Dirigidas a la Orientación Colectiva” (COD por sus siglas en inglés). SID se relaciona con la evaluación de las experiencias de viaje en la fase posterior al viaje. Los valores culturales dominantes asociados con SID son Individualismo-Colectivismo, Masculinidad-Feminidad, y Distancia del Poder. Cada uno de estos tres valores actúa independientemente, en pareja o los tres a la vez. RTD se relaciona con el consumo de productos de...
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