Reading 14: Just How are you intelligent? Garder, H. (1983) Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences.
Main focus or purpose: Howard Garder introduced to the world this new view of multiple intelligences. “Just how are you intelligent?” is unrelated to amount of overall intelligence and asks instead about the nature of your particular type of intelligence.
Primary Research Methods: Gardner developed a set of either indicators or “signs” that define intelligence. Any intellectual ability, or set of abilities, must map onto most of these criteria, if it is to be considered a separate, autonomous intelligence.
Main Results Reported: Each different type of intelligence varied in results. The following were tested Linguistic intelligence- able to use words that are more skillful. Musical Intelligence- gifted abilities involving sound, especially pitch, timbre and rhythm. Logical-mathematical intelligence- analyzes and computes various relationships among abstract objects, concepts, and ideas. Spatial intelligence- skilled in creating, visualizing, and manipulating mental images. Intrapersonal intelligence- able to understand who you are.
Weaknesses or Critique: Some concerns based on learning disabilities—how they would test differently. Some argue that not all intelligence was properly tested by Garder—“sexual intelligence, digital intelligence”
Importance/Value: As human beings its important for us to understand which part of our brain is strongest. It can help one find a well fitting job later on. People want to practice what they are naturally good at—so testing this is important.
Reading 25- Are you the master of your fate?
Rotter, J.B. (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-28
Main focus or purpose: Are the consequences of your behavior under your personal control or are they determined by forces outside of yourself? Rotter wanted to study differences among people on this dimension and, rather then simply asking them, e developed a test that measured a person’s locus of control.
Primary Research Methods: Rotter designed a scale containing a series of many pairs of statements. Each pair consisted of on statement reflecting an internal locus of control and one reflecting an external locus of control. Those taking the test were told to select the one statement of each pair, which you more strongly believe to be the case. This is a measure of personal belief. Rotter called his test to I-E scale.
Main Results Reported: Gambling- individuals identified as internals by the I-E scale tended to prefer betting on sure things. Persuasion- internals were found to be more successful than externals in altering the attitudes of others. Achievement motivation-plans to attend college, amt of time spent on hw—more likely to be found in those students who demonstrated an internal locus of control. Rotter hypothesized that those with an internal locus of control are more likely then externals to gain information from situations, take the initiative to make change, place greater value on inner skill and achievement goals, and are more able to resisted manipulation by others.
Weaknesses or Critique: There are not any right or wrong answers in this study. Everything is just based on one individual, which is time consuming for the ones doing the studies.
Importance/Value: After being tested—easier to be placed in a fitting environment. It’s important for us to know control.
Reading 30; You’re getting defensive again
Freud, A. (1946). The ego and the mechanisms of defense. New York: International Universities Press.
Main focus or purpose: Sigmund Freuds discovery of ego defense mechanisms occurred gradually over 30 or more years as his experiences in dealing with psychological problems grew.
Primary Research Methods: Freud claimed to have discovered...