Hnrs. Renaissance History Chapter 17 & 18 Study Guide
1. The two most important influences on Enlightenment thought were who? John Locke and Isaac Newton 2. After 1688, Great Britain permitted religious toleration to which groups? Lutherans, Jews, and Muslims 3. This nation was significantly freer than any other European nation at the beginning of the Enlightenment. What nation is this? Great Britain 4. An expanding, literate public and the growing influence of secular printed materials created a new and increasing influential social force called what? public opinion 5. Written by Voltaire in English and later translated to French, this book praised the virtues of the English, especially their religious liberty, and implicitly criticized the abuses of French society. What is this book’s title? Letters on the English 6. Philosophies criticized the Christian church for many things, but not for what? Taking too limited a role in national politics. 7. The two major points in the Deists' creed were what? The belief in an afterlife dependent upon one's earthly actions and the existence of a rational God. 8. Which of the following figures came closest to atheism in their religious thinking? Baron d'Holbach 9. According to Ethics, the most famous of his works, this man closely identified God and nature, an idea for which his contemporaries condemned him. Who was this? Spinoza 10. This 18th century philosopher was known as the "Jewish Socrates". Who is this man? Mendelssohn 11. Pascal and other critics saw this as an exceptionally carnal or sexually promiscuous religion because of its teaching that heaven was a place of sensuous delights. What is this religion? Islam 12. The Encyclopedia did what? secularized learning and spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe 13. He published On Crimes and Punishments, in which he applied critical analysis to the problem of making punishments both effective and just. Who is this? Marquis Cesare...
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