Hnf 41 Case Study on Calculous Cholecystitis

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I.Introduction

A. Concepts in nutrition, medical nutrition therapy, and organ systems concerned

Nutrition is the study of food in relation to health. The Food and Nutrition Council of the American Medical Association defined nutrition as the “science of food, the nutrients and other substances therein, their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease, and the processes by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excrete food substances.”

Nutrition is also concerned with the physiologic needs of the body in terms of specific nutrients, the means of supplying these nutrients through adequate diets, and the effects of failure to meet nutrient needs. In this similar viewpoint, nutrition is also concerned with the social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating. Nutrition follows the four basics concepts, namely: 1.) Adequate nutrition is essential for health. 2.) Food items are classified according to content in terms of majority of nutrients, broadly classified as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and water and are needed daily in the diet of humans. 3.) An adequate diet is the foundation of good nutrition, and it should consist of a wide variety of natural foods. 4.) Nutrients should be provided preformed in food, whereas a few may be synthesized within the body. 5.) Nutrients are interrelated and there should be metabolic balance in the body. 6.) The body constituents are in a dynamic state of equilibrium. 7.) Human requirements for certain nutrients are known quantitatively within certain limits. 8.) The effects of nutritional inadequacy are more than physical; behavioral patterns and mental performance are also compromised, and; 10.) Proper education, technical expertise in addition to the use of all resources available in the practice of nutrition will help upgrade the nutritional status of people. (Lagua, Claudio and Ruiz, 2004) Race has been a predisposing factor in developing gallstones. Westerners usually develop cholesterol stones, while Asians tend to have pigment or mixed stones. There has been an increasing prevalence of calculous cholecystitis in the Philippines. Whatever the type, size or origin of these stones, they can present with a variety of signs and symptoms.

Stones develop in a sluggish, diseased gallbladder. Formation of stones may be due to infection, stagnation of the bile or changes in the chemical composition of the bile, overeating or poor eating habits. Obesity is highly associated with prevalence of gallstones. Prevalence increases with age, history of diabetes mellitus and elevated serum triglycerides ( Lagua, Claudio, 2011)

The gallbladder may contain one large stone or many small ones. Infection accompanied by formation of gallstones is referred as calculous cholecystitis.

Often times, people with gallstones must have their gallbladder removed through a process called cholecystectomy. Transition diets are given accordingly after surgery and if the patient advances to an oral diet post-surgery, intake of fat is allowed as tolerated. As an accessory organ, the gallbladder is fairly easy to live without. Once it is removed, bile travels from the liver directly into the small intestine.

B. IMPORTANCE/ SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Disorder of the accessory organs present a significant impact on the absorption and nutritional status of an individual. Failure to give immediate treatment could bring about complications which are more difficult to manage. These complications may or may not possibly lead to death of an individual.

This study was conducted to enable the students to practice his/ her skills on Diet Therapy I. It may help the students to understand better the disease condition, the actions and interactions of food and medications to the body and the rationale for the diet prescription for the case patient. Moreover,...
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