1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results. The F-value is high enough at the 5% level of significance to suggest a significant difference between the control and treatment groups. The p-value 0.005 < 0.05 hence this suggests a rejection of the null hypothesis, meaning that the control and treatment groups are found to be different.

2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The null hypothesis is that the mean mobility scores for both groups are the same. As stated previously, since the p-value 0.005 < 0.05 this means I reject the null hypothesis. So the mean "difficulty with mobility score" for both groups must be different.

3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?

Yes the result was statistically significant at probability p < 0.001, according to the text.

4. If the researchers had set the level of significance or α = 0.01, would the results of p = 0.001 still be statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Yes this still implies statistical significance because 0.001 < 0.01

5. If F(3, 60) = 4.13, p = 0.04, and α = 0.01, is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. Would the null hypothesis be accepted or rejected?

In this case the result would not be considered statistically significant because 0.04...

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HLT362 Week 1 -5 All Discussion Questions
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Week 1 Dqs
1 - How could graphics and/or statistics be used to misrepresent data? Where have you seen this done?
2 - What are the characteristics of a population for which a mean/median/mode would be appropriate? Inappropriate?
Week 2 DQS
1 - Explain the importance of random sampling. What problems/limitations could prevent a truly random sampling and how can they be prevented?
2 - How large would your population have to be for a sample to be appropriate (i.e., rather than measuring the whole population)?
Week 3 DQS
1 - Suppose you hear an “old-timer” say, “Why, in my day, kids were much more respectful and didn’t cause as much trouble as they do nowadays!” Formulate a hypothesis related to this statement that you could test. How would you test it?
2 - Researchers routinely choose an α-level of 0.05 for testing their hypotheses. What are some experiments for which you might want a lower α -level (e.g. 0.01)? What are some situations in which you might accept a higher level (e.g. 0.1)?
3 - Explain when a z-test would be appropriate over a t-test.
Week 4 DQS
1 - If the result of an ANOVA experiment was "not significant",...

...Week 4
Exercise36
1. F is the statistic for ANOVA and the group df=1 and the error for df is 22. The f ratio is 9.619, which is significant for 0.005.
2. I would reject the null hypothesis because p=0.005 which is less than 0.05. This suggests there is a difference between the 2 groups.
3. There was a significant reported change of the p<0.0001 at week 12 compared with the control group, which there was no change.
4. Yes because 0.001<0.01 which is significant
5. Because 0.04 > 0.01 there is no statistical difference and will accept the null hypothesis.
6. ANOVA cannot be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between a single group. ANOVA is used to test relationships within various groups and among the groups.
7. There were 149 subjects and the sample size was 2 in the study.
8. A weakness for the study is the size of the sample. More subjects would have made the test better. A strength would be that the study had a control group to examine the treatment over the 12 weeks time and the significant difference between the 2 groups.
9. In my opinion the study results indicated that the treatment for pain and mobility with GI and PMR has made a significant difference for the women in the treatment group. F(1,26)=4.406, p=0.046. 0.046<0.001 rejecting the null hypothesis.
10. A possible problem with the study is the amount of women in the study. The study would be better with more women to study the treatment for...

...independent” are the assumptions for the t-test for dependent groups in a study (Grove, Susan K. p. 231). The dependent variable(s) is (are) measured at interval or ratio levels and the groups examined for differences are dependent based on matching or subjects serving as their own control are the 2 assumptions met by this study.
5. Compare the 3 months and 6 months t ratios for the variable Exercise from Table 3. What is your
conclusion about the long-term effect of the health-promotion intervention on Exercise in this study?
Answer: t=-7.75* (3months) and t= -3.93* (6 months). At 3 months, the difference in exercise from pretest was statistically significant with t = - 7.75*, P< 0.05. At 6 months the difference in exercise from pretest was also statistically significant with t = -3.93*. The result indicates that exercise variables increased significantly from pretest (mean 1.88) to 3 months (mean 2.58), and decreased at 6 months (mean 2.29) as compared to 3 months. Thus, the health promotion intervention did not have a positive long term effect on the subject’ exercise pattern.
236 EXERCISE 31 • t-test for Dependent Groups
6. What is the smallest, significant t ratio listed in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: p= 2.03*, P< 0.05 is the smallest significant t ratio listed in table 2. 2.03 is the smallest t ratios with an asterisk, indicating that...

...1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
Answer: Since the F value is significant, based on the p-value of 0.005 which is less than 0.05 which is sufficient to reject the null hypothesis. This suggests that there is a difference in the control and treatment groups.
2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: Again the p- value is less than 0.05 and therefor the null hypothesis can be rejected. This presents that the mean, difficulty and mobility scores, must be different
3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
Answer: The result was statistically significant with a probability score of p < 0.001,
4. If the researchers had set the level of significance or = 0.01, would the results of p 0.001 still be statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: Yes, because 0.001 < 0.01 is significant.
5. If F...

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HLT362 Module 5 Exercise 27 Simple Linear Regression
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What are the independent and dependent variables in Figures 2, A, B, and C? How would you describe the relationship between the variables in Figures 2, A, B, and C?
What are the independent and dependent variables in Figures 3, A, B, and C? How would you describe the relationship between the variables in Figures 3, A, B, and C?
Was there a significant difference in the y intercept for the lines of best fi t in Figure 2 from the y intercept for the lines of best fi t in Figure 3? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Ŷ represents the predicted value of y calculated using the equation Ŷ a bx. In Figure 2, the formula for SBP is Ŷ 43.2 0.17x. Identify the y intercept and the slope in this formula. What does x represent in this formula?
In the legend beneath Figure 2, the authors give an equation indicating that systolic blood pressure is SBP 43.2 0.17x. If the value of x is postnatal age of 30 hours, what is the value for Ŷ or SBP for neonates ≤1,000 grams? Show your calculations. In the legend beneath Figure 2, the authors give an equation indicating that systolic blood pressure is SBP 50.3 0.12x. If the value of x...

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HLT362 Module 1 Exercise 16
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1- The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement? (Your choices are: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval/ratio, or Experimental)
2- What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?
3- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
4- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.
5- Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
6 - Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.
7 - The mean (X ̅) is a measure of a distribution while the SD is a measure of its scores. Both X ̅ and SD are statistics.
8 - What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the...

...EXERCISE36 Questions to be Graded
1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F (1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
Answer: The F value suggests there is a significant difference between the results of the control and treatment groups. The P-value of 0.005 is < the alpha of 0.05.This suggest that the groups are significantly different and the null hypothesis should be rejected.
2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
Answer: Treatment group mean=control group mean
With the p-value being < the alpha, the null hypothesis would be rejected indicating the difference in the mean mobility scores.
3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
Answer: the p-value of 0.005 suggests that the results are statistically significant.
4. If the researchers had set the level of significance or α = 0.01, would the results of p = 0.001 still be statistically...

...EXERCISE36 Questions to be graded
1. The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) = 9.619, p = 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
* The F-value suggests that there is a significant difference between the results of the control and treatment groups. The P-value of 0.005 is < the alpha of 0.05. This suggest that the groups are significantly different and the null hypothesis should be rejected.
2. State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
* Treatment group mean = control group mean
* With the p-value being < the alpha, the null hypothesis would be rejected indicating the difference in the mean mobility scores.
3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
* The p-value of 0.005 suggests that the results are statistically significant.
4. If the researchers had set the level of significance or α = 0.01, would the results of p = 0.001 still be statistically significant?...