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ISSUES PAPER
Soft measures and transport behaviour
Prepared for a workshop entitled "Communicating Environmentally Sustainable Transport—The role of soft measures in achieving EST” Berlin, Germany, 5-6 December, 2002 Enquiries about this paper should be addressed to Richard Gilbert at richardgilbert1@csi.com Enquiries about the workshop should be addressed to Peter Wiederkehr at peter.wiederkehr@oecd.org or to Hedwig Verron at hedwig.verron@uba.de

Umwelt Bundes Amt

SOFT MEASURES AND TRANSPORT BEHAVIOUR

TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Definition of terms; scope and purpose of this paper ......................................... 3 Chapter 2. The EST visions and their importance................................................................ 7 2.1. Overview of the EST project; visions and conclusions........................................... 7 2.2. Scale of challenges involved in achieving EST .................................................... 10 2.3. Soft measures identified during the EST project .................................................. 11 2.4. Barriers to attainment of EST ............................................................................... 12 2.5. Conclusions from the EST project concerning implementation ........................... 12 Chapter 3. Key factors in the movement of people............................................................ 14 3.1. The importance of car ownership.......................................................................... 15 3.2. Economic factors .................................................................................................. 16 3.3. Settlement density................................................................................................. 18 3.4. Transport facilities ................................................................................................ 19 Chapter 4. Other factors in transport behaviour ................................................................. 21 4.1. Views about human behaviour.............................................................................. 21 4.2. Societal factors...................................................................................................... 22 4.3. Individual factors .................................................................................................. 23 4.4. Attitudes and behaviour ........................................................................................ 26 4.5. Acceptability ......................................................................................................... 27 Chapter 5. Roles of advertising .......................................................................................... 31 Chapter 6. Quick review of some research on the effectiveness of soft measures............. 34 6.1. Some negative assessments................................................................................... 34 6.2. Some more positive assessments .......................................................................... 34 6.3. Enhanced soft measures ........................................................................................ 38 Chapter 7. Conclusions concerning the use of soft measures ............................................ 41 Chapter 8. A step beyond soft measures: environmental supports for desired transport behaviour ....................................................................................................................... 42 Chapter 9. Draft workshop recommendations.................................................................... 44 Appendix A: Workshop programme .................................................................................. 45 Appendix B: Five approaches to explaining human behaviour.......................................... 47 End Notes ........................................................................................................................... 50

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