The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease cause by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which is one type of chronic disease that mainly attacks the immune system of the body. The immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off the infection or disease (Daniels, 1985). HIV attacks the convolute part of the immune system. HIV weakens the immune system by destroying the CD4 (T-cell) lymphocytes. CD4 is one type of blood cell that helps protect the body immune system from viruses and other infectious diseases (Aids. Gov, 2012). AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection; people that are diagnosed with HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems. When HIV destroys the CD4 lymphocytes the immune system becomes really weak and will not be able to protect itself and fight back from other infectious diseases. The infections that occur while the immune system is weak are called opportunistic infections that invade the body. When the body is weak, HIV infection also increases the risk of illness of the brain (neurological) and nerve body wasting and death (Aids.gov 2005). The first case of AIDS was first discovered in 1981 in the USA and since then it has grown and spreading all over the world (Daniels, 1985). There are different ways in which HIV could be transmitted. The most common way is through body fluid such as blood and semen, however HIV could as well be transmitted by sexual activity and sharing the hypodermic needle. Since HIV is retrovirus (meaning that it uses reverse transcriptase to convert RNA genomes into DNA genomes (Hughes et al., 1997)) it is impossible for it to transmit through the air or food it requires a certain fluid in order to keep it alive. The first reported case in the United Kingdom in December 1981 was a 49-year-old homosexual in Bournemouth who represented with AIDS nine month after returning back from Miami (Victor G. Daniels, 1985). This essay will be showing and discussing trends of HIV diagnoses among different ages, heterosexuals, homosexuals, drug injection and trends in black Africans. I will be also discussing different factors that affect the trend and how it increase and decreases over the past years. All of the data that I will be using are focusing on the population of the UK only. HIV is a slow and gradual disease, which takes around 10 years to reach the AIDS stage but before that the person would get symptoms of HIV. The initial symptoms include fever, body aches or headaches these symptoms will last for a couple of years without showing any other signs. In the next stage the person develops a gland in the neck or armpits without any pain other symptoms can be fatigue, weight loss, chronic diarrhea (Victor G. Daniels, 1985).
Figure 1( the figure above shows different trend of age from year 1981 through 2011.)(Advert, 2011)
Most of the people diagnosed with HIV through STI in 2009 were young people. In the same year 10% of the diagnosed people were aged 15 to 24. “Generally young people are considered for 57% of the HIV diagnose in the UK. Figure 1 shows that over two third of all people living with diagnosis in UK are among 30-34” (NHS, 2009). Those aged 30-34 is the largest group of age with new HIV diagnoses making a total of 25,835 since 1981. Overall age range of 25-44 have the highest percentage of HIV diagnoses since the disease was found in the UK. As the figure shows there is a general decrease after age 34, however it starts to increase again after age 55. In the past years the amount of new HIV diagnoses among those aged 55+ has increased (cdc.gov, 2011). There could be many reasons behind this, one that could be due to long delay between when the infection occurs, and when it is diagnosed. Another reason could be due to continuing sexual activity among that age range.
Heterosexuals and homosexuals
Figure 2 (The figure above shows the trend of HIV diagnoses among transmission route from year...