Printing press was introduced in India by the British. In 1674 the first printing apparatus was established in Bombay followed by Madras in 1772. The British encouraged only those newspapers and journals that supported them. They were always suspicious of journalists & newspapers. They were against any kind of criticism.
The first English newspaper in India ‘The Bengal Gazette’ or ‘Hicky’s Gazette’. Year 1780, Published weekly. Political and Commercial paper. Some of his articles were against the British rule .Hicky was arrested in 1781. His types were seized and then Hicky’s Gazette came to an end.
The first newspaper in Chennai ‘The Madras Courier’ was started in 1785. It’s officially recognized paper-started by Richard Johnson. Mumbai’s first newspaper ‘The Bombay Herald’ was started in1789. A year later ‘The Bombay Courier’ was started and The Bombay Herald was merged with it. The British started Press Censorship and issued Press regulations. They ordered all these papers to submit their material before publication for prior examination to the authorities.
James Silk Buckingham was a English author, journalist and traveller. He established a periodical, the Calcutta Journal, in 1818. But in 1823 the paper's outspoken criticisms of the East India Company led to the expulsion of Buckingham from India.
The pioneers of Indian language press were the Serampore Missionaries. These Irish missionaries came to India. They published books to preach Christianity. Also translated Bible into Indian languages. Bengali journal ‘Dig Darshan’‘Samachar Darpan’in 1818.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy was an Indian religious, social, and educational reformer. Brahmonical Magazinein English in 1821. Sambad Kaumudi in Bengali in 1821. 1822, Ram Mohan published Mirat-ul-Akbar in Persian language.
Sir Federick Adam brought out the First Press Ordinance in 1823 as against the increasing criticisms on the British by the newspapers.
The ordinance included...