After studying the chapters in Part 5, you should know how to answer the following questions: 1. Why and how did American society industrialize during the late nineteenth century? 2. What were the causes and consequences of urbanization? 3. How did political change and progressive reform gain momentum after 1900? 4. How did the United States emerge as a world power by 1918? 5. What tensions between the old and new existed in the 1920s? The 1920 Census revealed that a majority of Americans (51 percent) lived in urban areas for the first time. Part 5 covers the accelerating trends that led up to this important shift in American life from the agrarian to the urban. As you review these chapters, in addition to the questions above, notice what stayed constant in American life despite astonishing economic growth, political upheaval, the rise of a mass culture, and the United States’ new role on the world stage. Various conflicts between tradition and innovation would consume Americans from the 1880s to the 1920s.
resources for review
In the following pages, you’ll find the Thematic Timeline and Essay for Part 5 from America’s History, exercises to review your knowledge of the period, and AP-style questions that address the time period covered: 15 practice multiple-choice questions, 1 document-based question, and 3 free-response questions. Answers with page references to America’s History can be found at the end.
PART 5 Bold Experiments in an Era of Industrialization, 1877–1929
thematic timeline and Part Essay
Bold Experiments in an Era of Industrialization, 1877–1929 ECONOMY POLItICS aND LaW rEFOrM CULtUrE FOrEIGN rELatIONS
Economic depression of 1870s
Reconstruction ends (1877)
Great Railroad National Strike of 1877 league launches professional baseball (1876) William Dean Howells calls for realism in literature (1881)
Treaty brings Hawaii within U.S. orbit
First vertically Era of close integrated party comfirms petition, 1876 –1894 Rockefeller establishes Chinese Standard Oil exclusion Trust (1882 –1943)
Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) becomes largest women’s reform Emergence of Pendleton Act movement white-collar (1883) managerial Knights of Interstate work labor at peak Commerce (mid 1880s) Women enter Act (1887) paid labor as Hull House office workers (1889) Economic depression (1893 –1897) Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
People’s Party William (1890) Randolph Hearst Sierra Club pioneers Republican (1892) “yellow victories journalism” (1894 –1896) Coxey’s Army (1894) DisfranchiseRise of Demoment and Jim Consumers cratic “Solid Crow in the League (1899) South” South Supreme Court upholds segregation in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Rise of Social Gospel
War of 1898 Hawaii annexed (1898) PhilippineAmerican War (1899 –1902)
Resources for Review
POLItICS aND LaW
U.S. Steel becomes first corporation with billiondollar valuation (1901)
William McKinley assassinated; Theodore Roosevelt becomes president (1901) Hepburn Act regulates railroads (1906)
Growth of American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Popularity of Platt Amendragtime music ment sets limits on First World Cuban Series in autonomy American baseball (1902) Socialist Party (1903) (1901) Roosevelt corollary to NAACP Monroe...