History Study Guide Industrial Rev and Imperialism

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Industrial Rev

Why Britain
* Increasing productivity in agriculture
* new merchant classes in power
* powerful state that supported economic development
* rise of science and tech
* social structure allowed for people of different classes to work together * more intense patterns of global trading for buying raw materials and for selling manufactured goods * expanding pop increased both labor supply and demand for production * slave labor in plantation economies provided cheap raw materials * isolated island, stayed out of wars while other European countries fought * great navy

Why Europe
* scientific rev led to enlightenment=people questioned ideals, how can we have gov’t for everyone? how can we have a fair gov’t? * exploration led to sugar, silver, slaves, led to land, money, estates, led to tech, led to agricultural rev (change in methods of farming with new tech such as rotating crops increased food production)=more people, had to move to cities to find work=urbanization * 6 killer apps=competition, scientific rev, property rights, modern medicine, the consumer society, the work ethic * banking practices developed, urbanization developed from new tech * had many cheap, raw materials to sell due to colonies and slaves * had a lot of coal

* population explosion=increase in pop due to increase in food production because of agr rev=people lived longer, had healthier kids, death rates declined to healthier diet=people understood connection between germs and sanitation=increase in pop led to increased labor force, economy has more consumers Global causes of IR in Europe

* sugar, silver, and slaves allowed them to have colonies all over, allowed for cheap, raw materials * supply and demand
* overpopulation
* tech increase due to scientific rev
Role of Cotton
* industrial rev began in textile industry
* demand for cotton was extreme, factories developed to fill that hole * British East India Company took over Indian textile industry, Indian goods flood to Britain * India can’t compete with cheap cotton prices from Britain * cotton mill invented

Relationship between industrialized and non-industrialized world * Europe believed had to bring “civ and christianity to rest of world” * thought they were better than everyone else, that everyone else was stupid, half human * newly industrialized powers able to coerce non-industrialized non-western areas How Changed World Trade and Communication

* exports grew due to boom in production
* trade increased, prices dropped
* tariff levels decreased with idea of free trade (policy where gov’t doesn’t discriminate against imports or interfere with exports) * telegraph allowed communications across oceans much faster * steamboats and railroads allowed for easier transportation=easier communication Economic Responses to IR

* Marxism=Marx thought capitalist societies could never deliver promise that poverty would end, thought capitalism was flawed, focus on society in general, wanted classless society-haves vs. have nots * ideas took root in radical trade unionists and middle class intellectuals in Germany and Britain * trade unions=people were mistreated and underpaid, became angry at long hours with no money, started protests * Laissez-faire capitalism=literally “leave it alone”, gov’t should have hands off approach to business, owners of business should be able to do what they want, focus on individual rights * Socialism (comes from Marxism)=no individual would own means of production, people as whole own means of production, no member of society takes advantage of others * Utilitarianism=reduce suffering, grow happiness

Social Effects of IR
* factory conditions=horrible, people worked in dangerous conditions with machines, crowded, little pay, long hours, child labor * new “middle class”=businessmen assimilated into aristocratic life, right...
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