History Singapore

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History Chapter 2&5 Notes

Checklist on Chapter 2: Who was the founder of Singapore?

1. Reasons why Singapore was chosen as a port
2. Importance of the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty
3. Contributions of Maj William Farquhar, Sir Stamford Raffles, John Crawfurd.

Reasons why Singapore was chosen as a port

British Current Situation

1. They had ports at Bencoolen and Penang
2. They were also in trade with China and India. They traded their Opium which was from India for Chinese tea in which they sold in Europe. 3. They desperately needed a stop over port.

Breaking the Dutch Monopoly of trade

1. During the early 19th Century, the Dutch and the British competed with each other to control the highly profitable sea trade routes. 2. The Dutch had dominant control due to their trade in the Malay Archipelago due to their ports which were located in strategic locations(Meleka and Batavia). 3. They restricted Britain and other European traders to Batavia(in Java). 4. Also they had to pay heavy taxes on goods traded and exorbitant fees for using the port of Batavia. 5. Also they even restricted the Asian trading boats to fly a Dutch flag and carry a Dutch permit or pass. They were also not allowed to trade any ports other than Dutch controlled ones. 6. They also needed a stop over with their trade with China, to replenish supplies but with the Dutch controlling the ports, the British had to spend lot of money paying taxes hence, could not maximize profits.

Ineffectiveness of its already ports

1. Bencoolen was facing the Indian Ocean, which was too far from the main trading area, the straits of Meleka. Traders deemed it as inconvenient to trade in Bencoolen. 2. Meanwhile, Penang was too far north from the straits of Meleka. As a result, British ships were open to pirate attacks, storms, monsoons, foreign invasions etc. This made the port unsafe, hence was ineffective to make profits. Traders from the Malay Archipelago  also did not want to travel such a long way North. 3. They also needed a stop over with their trade with China, to replenish supplies.

Singapore’s Good Qualities as a trading port

1. Singapore was strategically located at the southern tip of The Malay Peninsular, near the Straits of Meleka and lay in between China and India trade route. It was also closer to the main trading places in Java. 2. In addition, it was a natural harbour(deep enough), fresh water supplies, had timber for repairing ships and was unoccupied by the Dutch.

Importance of the signning of the Anglo-Dutch treaty

1. The British did not want to anger Holland as there was a need to use it as a buffer state against aggressive an powerful European countries like France. 2. The British found out from the Napoleon wars that a powerful military country like France could use Holland as a base to start an attack on Britain hence, wanted to create a friendly and strong buffer state out of Holland 3. Holland meanwhile also did not want to anger the British as they were financially weak and were on the verge of bankrupcy after the Napoleonic warshence, did not want to start a war against the British as it would cripple its economy. 4. This caused Britan to have 3 ports in the Straits of Meleka. Namely from North: Penang, Melaka, Singapore.

Contributions of Maj William Farquhar

Farquhar got people to come and trade and live in Singapore
1. He invited settlers from Melaka to come,
2. He stationed a British official on St. John’s Island to invite passing ships to stop in Singapore. 3. It was so effective such that by May 1819 when Raffles returned, it had been transformed into a little town of new settlers.

Farquhar made sure the settlement had enough food
1. He made the people of Melaka aware of Singapore
2. Such that people from Melaka sailed down to Singapore, boats loaded with ducks, chickens, fruits and other foodstuffs...
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