Chapter 17 Outline
I.The Lure Of Imperialism
1. Imperialist Activity
a. Imperialism is the practice of extending a nation’s power by gaining territories for a colonial empire. b. Industrialized nations had flooded their own countries good and investment capital. They needed new sources for raw materials, new places to invest, and new customers. c. Militant needs included naval bases where they could refuel and repair ships. Industrialized nations sought foreign territory so they could build these coaling stations in strategic places. d. Two popular ideologies also contributed to imperialism. 1. One ideology was a strong sense of nationalism. They felt territorial conquest enhanced a country’s prestige and power. 2. Cultural superiority was another ideology. They had to push their views and culture onto less developed countries as a way to civilize them. Social Darwinism fed into this view. e. In the late 1800’s many Americans believed the U.S had to claim foreign territory as the European imperials had taken control of territories in Africa and Asia. Military advantages, new markets and wanting to spread Christian faith were powerful attractions to many Americans. They thought their manifest destiny was to expand to the distant islands farther west to the Pacific Ocean. 2. Taking Control of Hawaii
a. Expansionists were interested in acquiring Hawaii in the late 1800’s. In 1820 U.S. ships began arriving with traders and missionaries. Many missionaries came to convert Hawaiians to Christianity. The missionaries settled and began to raise crops such as sugarcane. The population of Hawaii decreased from about 300,000 in the 1770’s to about 40,000 by 1893 because of diseases foreigners brought. b. Investors in the sugar industry began increasing their control. Sugar planters grew very rich because Americans had a sweet tooth. To keep sugarcane plantations running, planters brought in works from China, japan and the Philippines. By 1874 Americans had gained control over Hawaii’s land ands economy, which King Kalakaua strongly resented. He allied himself with landowners to strengthen the economy. He also negotiated a treaty that allowed sugar to enter the U.S tax free, which boosted the Hawaiian sugar industry. Sugar tycoons wanted more power over Hawaiian affairs. c. A group of American business leaders, planters, and traders formed the Hawaiian League to overthrow the monarchy and create a democracy under the control of Americans. The Hawaiian League forced the King to sign the Bayonet Constitution, which would restrict his power and deprive Hawaiians of the right to vote. This forced him to give the U.S. Pearl Harbor – a permanent port for warships in Hawaii. America sugar planters now had control over Hawaii although they revoked the treaty to support sugar planter in the U.S.. Sugar planters in Hawaii started secret talks about annexation. d. When the king died his sister became queen. She wanted to restore the power of the monarchy, which caused business leaders to plan to overthrow her. John L. Stevens was the American minister in Hawaii and he ordered U.S. Marines to go storm the royal palace, all of this was done without authorization. Queen Liliuokalani surrendered on January 17,1893. Rebel leaders formed a new regime with Sanford B. Dole, a sugar tycoon, as president. John L. Stevens formally recognized the new Republic of Hawaii, while the Senate considered s treaty to annex the islands. e. President Cleveland put the treaty on hold and ordered an investigation of events in Hawaii. They condemned the revolt and proposed to restore Liliuokalani to the thrown but Dole refused to step down. The next president William McKinley favored annexation and Congress voted their approval in 1898 and it became a state in 1959. 3. Influence in China
a. Americans have been traveling to China ever since 1784....