History of Turkish National Security

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ANIL BIRKAN DAGASAN

DUTIES AND HISTORY OF NSC, AND MILITARY'S ROLE IN TURKISH POLITICS
To understand and make clear the duties, structure, and history of National Security Council, we should first analyze the term national security.We should see national security as polirical and judicial term. It is political, because it changes according to the political circumstances in different states. For exaple, Turkey's understanding of national security is different than of Israel's. Each changes according to the economic situations, relationship with it's neighbours and jeopolitical situation. Moreover, it can be count as juridical because it exists in constitution and in other laws. National Security Council ( NSC ) is an institution, which is established as an advisory body, which gives advices to the Council of Ministers. NSC established in 1961 with the 1961 constitution and modified two times. In terms of article 118 of 1961 constitution, NSC is composed of Prime Minister, The Cief of The General Staff, the ministers of national defence, internal, and foreign affairs, The Commander of tha Army, and Navy and the Airforce, General Commander of the gendarmerie, under the chairmanship of the president. '' (As amended on 3.10.2001-4709/32) The National Security Council shall be composed of the Prime Minister, the Chief of the General Staff, Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers of Justice, National Defence, Internal Affairs and Foreign Affairs, the Commanders of the Army, Navy and Air Forces and the General Commander of the Gendarmerie, under the chairmanship of the President of the Republic.''Depending on the agenda, related Ministers and persons may be invited to the meetings of the Council for their views. '' (As amended on 3.10.2001-4709/32) The National Security Council shall submit its advisory decisions about the formulation, determination and implementation of the national security policy of the State and its opinions about the maintenance of the necessary coordination, to the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers shall evaluate decisions of the National Security Council concerning the measures it deems necessary for the preservation of the existence and independence of the State, integrity of the country and peace and security of the society.'' In the absence of the President of the Republic, the National Security Council shall meet under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister. If we analyze decision-making process of NSC, Council takes its decisions by the majority of votes. In case of a tie, the side which has the Council Chairman is assumed to form the majority.The decisions of the Council are submitted to the President and the Prime Ministry to be discussed at the Council of Ministers by the Secretariat General of the National Security Council. National Security Council is a long standing institution in Turkey. It existed before 1961 with different names and partially different duties. If we look 1930's we see Secretariat General of The Supreme Defence assembly era. One of the duties of the assembly were to determine the tasks of the ministeries and prepare neccessary princibles concerning the national mobilization. They used to convene annual meetings, but extraordinary meetings were also possible. In 1949 National Defence Supreme Council and Secretariat General established. It's main duties to set principles of national defence policy, and to express it's opinions after examining the proposals of the Prime Minister about national defence. In 1960 military coup happened in Turkey and with the 1961 constitution it's name changed to National security council. Article 2 of the 129th law is about the duties NSC such as outlining the principles of the national security policy, implementation of these principles, preparing national plans and programs for each national security issue, and determining mediate and ultimate objectives for their realization....
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