Sumerian astronomers introduced angle measure, using a division of circles into 360 degrees.[4] They and their successors the Babylonians studied the ratios of the sides of similar triangles and discovered some properties of these ratios, but did not turn that into a systematic method for finding sides and angles of triangles. The ancient Nubians used a similar methodology.[5] The ancient Greeks transformed trigonometry into an ordered science.[6]
Classical Greek mathematicians (such as Euclid and Archimedes) studied the properties of chords and inscribed angles in circles, and proved theorems that are equivalent to modern trigonometric formulae, although they presented them geometrically rather than algebraically. Claudius Ptolemy expanded upon Hipparchus' Chords in a Circle in his Almagest.[7] The modern sine function was first defined in the Surya Siddhanta, and its properties were further documented by the 5th century Indian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata.[8] These Greek and Indian works were translated and expanded by medieval Islamic mathematicians. By the 10th century, Islamic mathematicians were using all six trigonometric functions, had tabulated their values, and were applying them to problems in spherical geometry.[citation needed] At about the same time, Chinese mathematicians developed trigonometry independently, although it was not a major field of study for them. Knowledge of trigonometric functions and methods reached Europe via Latin translations of the works of Persian and Arabic astronomers such as Al Battani and Nasir alDin alTusi.[9] One of the earliest works on trigonometry by a European mathematician is De Triangulis by the 15th century German mathematician Regiomontanus. Trigonometry was still so little known in 16th century Europe that Nicolaus Copernicus devoted two chapters of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium to explaining its basic concepts.
Driven by the demands of navigation and the growing need for accurate maps...
...compiled by Hipparchus, who is now consequently known as "the father of trigonometry."[3]
Sumerian astronomers introduced angle measure, using a division of circles into 360 degrees.[4]They and their successors the Babylonians studied the ratios of the sides of similar triangles and discovered some properties of these ratios, but did not turn that into a systematic method for finding sides and angles of triangles. The ancient Nubians used a similar methodology.[5] The ancient Greeks transformed trigonometry into an ordered science.[6]
Classical Greek mathematicians (such as Euclid and Archimedes) studied the properties of chordsand inscribed angles in circles, and proved theorems that are equivalent to modern trigonometric formulae, although they presented them geometrically rather than algebraically. Claudius Ptolemyexpanded upon Hipparchus' Chords in a Circle in his Almagest.[7] The modern sine function was first defined in the Surya Siddhanta, and its properties were further documented by the 5th centuryIndian mathematician and astronomer Aryabhata.[8] These Greek and Indian works were translated and expanded by medieval Islamic mathematicians. By the 10th century, Islamic mathematicians were using all six trigonometric functions, had tabulated their values, and were applying them to problems in spherical geometry.[citation needed] At about the same time, Chinese mathematicians developed trigonometry independently, although it...
...f ter
A Brief History of Trigonometry
A painting of the famous greek geometrist, and "father of measurement", Euclid. In the times of the greeks, trigonometry and geometry were important mathematical principles used in building, agriculture and education.
The Babylonians could measure angles, and are believed to have invented the division of the cirle into 360º.[1] However, it was the Greeks who are seen as the original pioneers of trigonometry.
A Greek mathematician, Euclid, who lived around 300 BC was an important figure in geometry and trigonometry. He is most renowned for Euclid's Elements, a very careful study in proving more complex geometric properties from simpler principles. Although there is some doubt about the originality of the concepts contained within Elements, there is no doubt that his works have been hugely influential in how we think about proofs and geometry today; indeed, it has been said that the Elements have "exercised an influence upon the human mind greater than that of any other work except the Bible.<Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 2008>

[edit]First Tables of Sines or Cosines
Hiparchus
In the second century BC a Greek mathematician, Hipparchus, is thought to have been the first person to produce a table for solving a triangle's lengths and...
...Teaching trigonometry using Empirical Modelling
0303417
Abstract
The trigonometric functions sin(x), cos(x) and tan(x) are relationships that exist between the angles
and length of sides in a rightangled triangle. In Empirical Modelling terms, the angles in a triangle
and the length of the sides are observables, and the functions that connect them are the definitions.
These welldefined geometric relationships can be useful when teaching GCSElevel students about
the functions, as they provide a way to visualise what can be thought of as fairly abstract functions.
This paper looks at how different learning styles apply to Empirical Modelling, and presents a practical example of their use in a model to teach trigonometry.
1 Introduction
The trigonometric functions sin(x), cos(x) and tan(x)
are relationships that exist between the angles and
length of sides in a rightangled triangle. In Empirical Modelling terms, the angles in a triangle and the
length of the sides are observables, and the functions
that connect them are the definitions. These welldefined geometric relationships can be useful when
teaching GCSElevel students about the functions,
as they provide a way to visualise what can be
thought of as fairly abstract functions. Rather than
teaching students by showing them diagrams in an
instructive way (already a good way of doing it), a
constructive approach may allow students to gain a
better understanding...
...The History of Trigonometry is one type of mathematics that deals with the sides and the angles. In the First paragraph I would like to explain the main history of trigonometry and also go into detail about the certain aspects of the mathematic branch. In the Second paragraph I will explain details on 4 of the great trigonometry mathematicians who discovered information about trigonometry, as well as improved existing theories as well. In the Third paragraph I would like to explain how these theories and techniques are applied today by various corporate companies. The improvement of trigonometry is still improving today, and all of the details talked about have either been elaborated or been used for extraordinary purposes.
Paragraph 1, In the beginning trigonometry started of in these job branches Navigation, surveying, and astronomy. In all of these job aspects, proper distance between things needed to be determined. Such as the distance between the earth and the moon, or for distances that can be measured directly, or the distance from one continent to another. In all of this trigonometry was applied. Today most trigonometry is still applied in the same places , only with chemistry, physics, and at least all branches of engineering.
Paragraph 2, some of the greatest mathematicians are quoted for there superior workings in...
...Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon "triangle" + metron"measure"[1]) is a branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides. Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as waves. The field evolved during the third century BC as a branch of geometry used extensively for astronomical studies.[2] It is also the foundation of the practical art of surveying.
Trigonometry basics are often taught in school either as a separate course or as part of a precalculus course. The trigonometric functions are pervasive in parts of pure mathematics and applied mathematics such as Fourier analysis and the wave equation, which are in turn essential to many branches of science and technology. Spherical trigonometry studies triangles on spheres, surfaces of constant positive curvature, in elliptic geometry. It is fundamental to astronomy and navigation. Trigonometry on surfaces of negative curvature is part of Hyperbolic geometry.


\History
Main article: History of trigonometry
The first trigonometric tablewas apparently compiled byHipparchus, who is now consequently known as "the father of trigonometry."[3]
Sumerian astronomers introduced angle...
...Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon "triangle" + metron "measure"[1]) is a branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between the lengths of their sides and the angles between those sides. Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as waves. The field evolved during the third century BC as a branch of geometry used extensively for astronomical studies.[2] It is also the foundation of the practical art of surveying.
Trigonometry basics are often taught in school either as a separate course or as part of a precalculus course. The trigonometric functions are pervasive in parts of pure mathematics and applied mathematics such as Fourier analysis and the wave equation, which are in turn essential to many branches of science and technology. Spherical trigonometry studies triangles on spheres, surfaces of constant positive curvature, in elliptic geometry. It is fundamental to astronomy and navigation. Trigonometry on surfaces of negative curvature is part of Hyperbolic geometry.
Contents
f one angle of a triangle is 90 degrees and one of the other angles is known, the third is thereby fixed, because the three angles of any triangle add up to 180 degrees. The two acute angles therefore add up to 90 degrees: they are complementary angles. The shape of a triangle is completely determined,...
...Trigonometry
 Introduction to trigonometryAs you see, the word itself refers to three angles  a reference to triangles. Trigonometry is primarily a branch of mathematics that deals with triangles, mostly right triangles. In particular the ratios and relationships between the triangle's sides and angles. It has two main ways of being used: 1. In geometryIn its geometry application, it is mainly used to solve triangles, usually right triangles. That is, given some angles and side lengths, we can find some or all the others. For example, in the figure below, knowing the height of the tree and the angle made when we look up at its top, we can calculate how far away it is (CB). (Using our full toolbox, we can actually calculate all three sides and all three angles of the right triangle ABC). 2. AnalyticallyIn a more advanced use, the trigonometric ratios such as as Sine and Tangent, are used as functions in equations and are manipulated using algebra. In this way, it has many engineering applications such as electronic circuits and mechanical engineering. In this analytical application, it deals with angles drawn on a coordinate plane, and can be used to analyze things like motion and waves. Chapter1Angles in the Quadrants( Some basic Concepts)In trigonometry, an angle is drawn in what is called the "standard position". The vertex of the angle is on the origin, and one side of the angle is fixed and drawn along the positive...
...Paper  I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Prehistory and Protohistory: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...
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