Education in the Philippines evolved from early settlers to the present. Education in the country is in great importance because it is the primary avenue for upward social and economic mobility. Philippine educational system has a very deep history from the past in which it has undergone several stage of development going to the present system of education.
Education from Ancient Early Filipinos
The education of pre-Spanish time in the Philippines was informal and unstructured. The fathers taught their sons how to look for food and other means of livelihood. The mothers taught their girls to do the household chores. This education basically prepared their children to become good husband and wives.
Early Filipino ancestors valued education very much. Filipino men and women know how to read and write using their own native alphabet called alibata. The alibata was composed of 17 symbols representing the letters of the alphabet. Among these seventeen symbols were three vowels and fourteen consonants.
Educational System During Spanish Period
The educational system of the Philippines during the Spanish times was formal. The Religious congregations paved the way in establishing schools from the primary level to the tertiary level of education. The schools focused on the Christian Doctrines. There was a separate school for boys and girls. The wealthy Filipinos or the Ilustrados were accommodated in the schools. Colonial education brought more non-beneficial effects to the Filipinos.
Educational Decree 1863
The first educational system for students in the country was established by virtue of the Education Decree of 1863. In furtherance, the decree required the government to provide school institutions for boys and girls in every town. As a consequence, the Spanish schools started accepting Filipino students. It was during this time when the intellectual Filipinos emerged. The Normal School was also established which gave men the opportunity to study a three-year teacher education for the primary level.
Education during the Spanish Regime and Its Colonial Effects to the Filipinos The friars controlled the educational system during the Spanish times. They owned different schools, ranging from the primary level to the tertiary levels of education. The missionaries took charge in teaching, controlling and maintaining the rules and regulations imposed to the students.
These missionaries emphasized the teachings of the Catholic religion starting from the primary level to the tertiary level of education. The students in the primary level were taught the Christian Doctrines, the reading of Spanish books and a little of the natives' language. Science and Mathematics were not very much taught to the students even in the universities. Aside from the Christian Doctrines taught, Latin was also taught to the students instead of Spanish.
The schools before were exclusive for the Spaniards. The Filipinos were only able to enter the schoo.1 in the late 19th century. The schools also limited their accommodations to the sons of wealthy Filipino families in 1863. Although the schools were already open for Filipinos, the friars still believed that the Filipinos would not be able to match their skills and that the only way for the Filipinos to learn fast was to impose upon them strict discipline which means applying corporal punishment.
Schools Built By the Spaniards
The schools for boys and girls were separated. The first established schools were exclusive for the boys. The Augustinians built the first school in the Philippines situated in Cebu in 1565.
College was equivalent to a university during the Spanish regime. The student graduated with the degree in Bachelor of Arts (Bachiller en Artes). The first college school for the boys was the "Colegio de San Ignacio" which was established by the Jesuits in Manila in 1589. They also established the "Colegio de San...